The Anarchist International (AI), L'Internationale des Fédérations Anarchistes (IFA), The International of the Federations of Anarchists (IFA), The International of Anarchist Federations (IAF), The International Federations of Anarchists (IFA), The International Federation of Anarchists (IFA)
L'INTERNATIONALE DES FÉDÉRATIONS ANARCHISTES
THE ANARCHIST INTERNATIONAL
DEN ANARKISTISKE INTERNASJONALE
A documentary of the IFA-IAF-AI congresses from 1968-2010
En dokumentasjon av IFA-AI kongressene fra 1968-2010
in Scandinavian, French, Spanish and English
AI - IFA- IAF is rooted back to the 1st International's (i.e. the International Workingmen's Association) conference at Saint-Imier, in The Swiss Confederation, 15-16.09.1872. At this conference it was decided an anarchist resolution denouncing all forms of political power, i.e. political/administrative and economically broadly defined. Also a solidarity and fellowship pact was decided upon by the delegates. The anarchist international had meetings several times during the years passing by, see http://www.anarchy.no/iwwai.html for more information.
The Anarchist International (IFA) was reorganized at a congress in Carrara (Italy) 31.08-05.09.1968. The purpose of the congress was, among other things, to create a world wide anarchist organization as an alternative to "Cohn Bendit et autres gauchistes", also called "the children of Marx". Anarchists were tired of people presenting basically marxist ideas as anarchism. In the following years, several congresses were organized.
In 1997 the term Anarchist International (AI) was officially introduced, although mentioned several times before, say, in International Journal of Anarchism, IJ@ no 10/26 (15) in 1985. The constitution of the Anarchist International AI was officially confirmed on the International Anarchist Congress, i.e. the 5th Anarchist Biennial, arranged by the NAC/IFA/AI in Oslo medio December 1998. The AI is a broader organization and network than the IFA anarchist federations of some countries in the South and North.
The International Journal of Anarchism, IJ@, is the only officially mandated and publicly registered organ of the Anarchist International AI-IFA-IAF. L'Internationale Anarchoféministe, i@f, the Anarcha-Feminst International, founded 1982, is also affiliated to the AI. There are also sections/federations for support work, community action, research and other tendencies of anarchism broadly defined, i.e. the anarchosyndicalist International Workers of the World - IWW/AI, the eco/green anarcist international, GAIA, founded in 1982, plus internationals of the four main tendencies of anarchism related to the economical-political map, 1. commune or communist anarchism, 2. collectivist anarchism, 3 social-individualist, including mutualist anarchism, 4. individualist anarchism, and national federations.
III. THE IFA-IAF CONGRESSES IN 1968, 1971, 1978, 1982, 1983, 1984 AND 1986 ETC.
IV. THE AI-IFA-IAF CONGRESSES IN THE LATE 1980-IES, THE 1990-IES AND 2000-S AND DIRECT ACTIONS OF AI-IFA-IAF
V. THE ANARCHIST INTERNATIONAL (AI-IFA-IAF) AND THE ANARCHIST BLACK CROSS (ABC) - A BRIEF HISTORY
VI. THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE
In this historical research we have not only quoted material from the Northern sections of IFA-IAF and the Anarchist International, AI-IFA-IAF, but also independet third party sources, such as the Bulletin CRIFA, the main organ of the southern sections of IFA-IFA, letters from CRIFA, the French anarchist paper Le Monde Libertaire, and the British journal Black Flag, the Organ of Anarchist Black Cross (ABC) plus three main newspapers in Norway, Dagens Næringsliv, Finansavisen and Verdens Gang, CNN, and a letter from CNN to AIIS/AI, etc.
About the northern and southern sections of IFA-IAF and
the Anarchist International AI-IFA-IAF
This chapter presents in brief the historical development of the Anarchist International AI-IFA-IAF based on documents from congresses in the archives of the International Institute for Organization Research (IIFOR). IFA is l'Internationale des Fédérations Anarchistes, i.e. the International of Anarchist Federations, IAF, and AI is the Anarchist International.
The Anarchist International (IFA - IAF - AI) is a global anarchist organization. It has its origins in the Anarchist St. Imier International, formed in 1872 when the anarchist contingent was expelled from the International Workingmen's Association, First International, after the Hague Congress (1872), see Steklov, G.M., ''History of the First International'', part 2, chapter 2. The St. Imier international issued a resolution denouncing all forms of political power, i.e. political/administrative and economically broadly defined. A solidarity and fellowship pact was decided upon by the delegates. The anarchist international had meetings several times during the years passing by.
The Anarchist International (IFA-IAF) was reorganized at a congress in Carrara, Italy 31/8-5/9 1968. The purpose of the congress was, among other things, to create a world wide anarchist organization as an alternative to "Cohn Bendit et autres gauchistes", also called "the children of Marx". In the following years, several congresses were organized.
The Anarchist Federation of Norway - Anarkistføderasjonen i Norge (AFIN) - Anarkistenes organisasjon (i Norge) ANORG, was affiliated to IFA/IAF, the International of Anarchist Federations 15.01 1979. This is confirmed in Bulletin C.R.I.F.A no 39 avril-mai 1982, and no 42 novembre-février 1982, also with the report from the first Nordic IFA-congress in Oslo, with the foundation of the Nordic IFA-IAF-secretariate. These documents also imply that the IFA-secretariate in Oslo was not considered as a sub-secretariate to C.R.I.F.A, but on equal footing, i.e. as commissions for the northern and southern sections respectively. The Danish, the Swedish and the Finnish anarchist federations became members of IFA/IAF in 1983. In 1983 there were four northern, the Norwegian, Swedish, Danish and Finnish, and three southern federations, the French, Italian and Iberian in IFA/IAF plus the UAB, Bulgarian Anarchist Union. See http://www.anarchy.no/mandate.html , http://www.anarchy.no/ifadok.html and http://www.anarchy.no/ifa.html .
In 1986, at the fourth IFA-congresses in the north, and in the south where NAC, The Northern Anarchist Confederation's four IFA-federations participated by phone, the southern IFA-federations, the French, Spanish and Italian turned leftwards at the economical political map due to leftist-marxist tendencies. They thus left the anarchist quadrant on the economical-political map. The three southern IFA-federations turned out to be "the children of Marx". (The Bulgarian Anarchist Union, UAB, was not a federation, but an authoritarian group, and thus not recognized by the International Anarchist Tribunal as a member of IAF-IFA.) This leftist-authoritarian position of the southern IFA federations made it necessary to reorganize the IFA to save it from the marxist-leftist positions. Thus, the majority of the IFA federations, the four northern, decided to reorganize the IFA, and started the Anarchist Biennials, a series of international anarchist congresses, the first one in 1990. The three southern IFA-federations and their secretariate were suspended by the majority of the federations, the four northern, and the International Anarchist Tribunal, see http://www.anarchy.no/aptm.html , and the resolutions of their later congresses were disallowed. This was unanimously decided by the four delegates of the northern sections of IFA-IAF and IAT that participated by phone at the IFA-IAF congress in Paris 31 October to 3 November 1986, and confirmed at later IFA-congresses in Oslo. More documentation of the marxist leftis/collectivist/communist tendency of the southern IFA-IAF federations will be publish in IJA later.
The suspension and the disallowance of their congresses will remain until the marxist-authoritarian tendency of the southern IFA-IAF-federations is removed. So far this has not happened. Thus the resolutions from their congresses from the fifth in 1990 and later are disallowed, due to significant marxist authoritarian tendencies, and the Nordic IFA/IAF-secretariate has been the world secretariate, since 1986, see http://www.anarchy.no/wscifa.html . The secretariate and federations stand firm on the IFA/IAF-principles, see the economic-political map etc. http://www.anarchy.no/a_e_p_m.html . More about the conflict between the southern IFA/IAF-federations and the northern sections, see http://www.anarchy.no/southern.html .
The Anarchist International is a broader network than the IFA/IAF-sections in the north and south. At the founding congress of the broader network in 1988, later confirmed by the International Anarchist Congress, i.e. the 5th Anarchist Biennial, arranged by the NAC/IFA/AI in Oslo medio December 1998, the following was stated: "The Anarchist International is a global, undogmatic, free thinking, nonsectarian modern anarchist international, with sections for anarchoindividualist, anarchocollectivist, social individualist and mutualist anarchist and anarchocommunist as well as green/ecoanarchist, anarchosyndicalist and anarchafeminist anarchists. The southern IFA/IAF is a dogmatic, sectarian communist "anarchist", leftist marxistoid organization with little interest for the Anarchist International. The southern IFA/IAF is more communist than anarchist, i.e. collectivist on the economical political map. Outside the anarchist quadrant on the map, far left in the marxist quadrant."
III. THE IFA-IAF CONGRESSES IN 1968, 1971, 1978, 1982, 1983, 1984 AND 1986 ETC.
1. IFA-kongressene i 1968 og 1971, - The IFA/IAF congresses in 1968 and 1971
IFA (L'Internationale des Fédérations Anarchistes) tok utgangspunkt i den 1. Internasjonales konferanse i Saint-Imier, Sveits, den 15/9 1872. På denne konferansen ble det vedtatt en anarkistisk resolusjon som tok avstand fra enhver form for politisk makt. Dessuten vedtok de delegerte en vennskaps- og solidaritetspakt.
IFA ble nyorganisert på en kongress i Carrara i Italia den 31/8-5/9 1968. Hensikten med kongressen var å danne en verdensomspennende anarkistisk organisasjon som et alternativ til "Cohn Bendit et autres gauchistes". En hadde sett seg lei på at Cohn Bendit og andre venstreekstremister - noen ganger kalt "barn av Marx", feilaktig presenterte marxistisk tankegods som anarkisme. [31/8-5/9 er CRIFA's datoer. Biblioteket CIRA's arkiver i Lausanne, i Den sveitsiske konføderasjon, opererer med et noe lengre tidsrom: "Congreso internacional de federaciones anarquistas: Celebrado en Carrara (Italia) del 30 de agosto al 8 de septiembre 1968".]
På den andre IFA-kongressen, i Paris 1-4/8 1971, ble resolusjonene fra den første kongressen ratifiserte. Det ble slått fast at "la base ideologique de l'I.F.A. sera essentiellement anarchiste", og det ble dermed igjen markert avstand til "gauchistes", dvs marxister som benyttet frihetlig retorikk for å markedsføre sine autoritære idéer.
This is stated in the document with the resolutions from the third congress of IFA, "3eme Congres de l'IFA" edited by CRIFA, p. 14.
2. IFA-kongressen i 1978 - The IFA/IAF congress in 1978
Den tredje IFA-kongressen ble avholdt 23-27/3 1978 i Carrara, hvor IFA-prinsippene ble vedtatt (From the document "3eme Congres de l'IFA" edited by CRIFA, pp. 63-65):
"Ce sont les principes suivants: Négation de l'authorité et de tout pouvoir; Négation de la hierarchie; Négation des lois juridiques; Liberte, Egalite, Solidarite, Justice sociale, Contrat libre, Libre initiative, Atheisme, Antimilitarisme, Internationalisme, Decentralisme, Autonomie et federalisme, Autogestione et communisme libertaire. La négation de l'autorité et de tout pouvoir est le principe essentiel et le signe distinctif de l'anarchisme et du mouvement anarchiste. Tous les autres principes libertaires découlent de cette négation de l'autorite et du pouvoir...
L'internationale des Fédérations Anarchistes (I.F.A.) est constituee par des Fédérations - une par pays. Ces Fédérations jouissent de pleine autonomie dans leurs structures et dans leur fonctionnement intérieur, mais elles sont solidaires entre elles en vertu du pacte d'association commun, volontairement et librement accepté, qui constitue partie intégrante de cette déclaration de principe de l'anarchisme social."
Disse ble siden knyttet an til det økonomisk-politiske kartet: "These principles of social ideal anarchism constitute a leading star for anarchism in general, i.e. communist, collectivist and individualist anarchism, as well as social individualist anarchism, practical social anarchy, anarchism and federalism included."
Følgende ble vedtatt om utviklingen av en anarkistisk samfunnsvitenskapelig analyse:
"Alors que les principes de l'anarchisme restent inchangeables, qu'ils affirment l'incompatibilité de l'anarchisme avec le marxisme, que celui ci soit dogmatique ou non; alors qu'il ne remet pas en cause la chaîne logique de la pensée qui, partant de la théorie aboutit à la pratique ou à la reconnaissance du pouvoir étatique, ainsi que toutes les théories autoritaires présentées sous une forme libérale, ces principes de base de l'anarchisme réaffirmés, nous reconnaissons la possibilité d'effectuer une analyse anarchiste nouvelle, suivant les conditions socio-économiques contemporaires.
Cette analyse, conçue comme critique anarchiste et non comme critique de l'anarchisme, peut se mouvoir, par exemple, dans le cadre suivant, non limitatif: analyse différente du 19ème siècle, évaluant le rôle actuel de l'Etat, de la composition et des rapports entre les classes, de l'évolution de la science et de sa vulgarisation, du rôle de cette dernière dans le renforcement de l'aliénation, de l'utilisation des mass-média par l'Etat et les partis, des formes alternatives tendant à transformer la vie quotidienne."
Igjen ble det altså fastslått at anarkismen og marxismen er uforenelige og inkompatible. De sosio-økonomiske rangs- og inntektsanalysene som brukes til det økonomisk-politiske kartet, og de matematiske analysene i denne sammenheng, har en forankring i dette vedtaket. Det nevnes også andre temaer for anarkistisk kritikk av samfunnet.
The IFA-IAF-principles in three versions, French, English and Norwegian, are the following 1-5.
1. A degree of anarchy = 100%, i.e. 100% socialism and autonomy, is mainly a theoretical concept, which probably practically never can be reached fully. The complete anarchist ideal is in a way similar to the horizon. When getting closer, another horizon appears. All things may be improved, also plans for the anarchist ideal. These new interpretations must however probably always be based on the IFA principles, i.e. the basic principles of the anarchist social ideal! The IFA principles, rooted back to the 1872 Conference of Saint-Imier in the Swiss Confederation and the decisions made at the Congress of Carrara in Italy, 1968, and adopted at the Congresses of IFA in Carrara 1978 and Oslo in Norway 1982, etc. and later confirmed at the constitutional congress of the Anarchist International (AI), the International Anarchist Congress, i.e. the 5th Anarchist Biennial, arranged by the NAC/IFA/AI in Oslo medio December 1998 (the AI is a broader organization and network than the IFA anarchist federations of some countries in the South and North), are the following, 1-5:
2. French version: Ce sont les principes suivants: Negation de l'authorite et de tout pouvoir; Negation de la hierarchie; Negation des lois juridiques; Liberte, Egalite, Solidarite, Justice sociale, Contrat libre, Libre initiative, Atheisme, Antimilitarisme, Internationalisme, Decentralisme, Autonomie et federalisme, Autogestione et communisme libertaire. La negation de l'autorite et de tout pouvoir est le principe essentiel et le signe distinctif de l'anarchisme et du mouvement anarchiste. Tous les autres principes libertaires decoulent de cette negation de l'autorite et du pouvoir.
L'internationale des Federations Anarchistes (I.F.A.) est constitue par des Federations - une par pays. Ces Federations jouissent de pleine autonomie dans leurs structures et dans leur fonctionnement interieur, mais elles sont solidaires entre elles en vertu du pacte d'association commun, volontairement et librement accepte, qui constitue partie integrante de cette declaration de principe de l'anarchisme social. From the document "3eme Congres de l'IFA" edited by CRIFA, pp. 63-65.
3. English version: The basic principles of anarchism are: The negation of authority and all of its power, hierarchies and juridical laws. Freedom, equality, solidarity, social justice, free contract, free initiative, atheism, antimilitarism, internationalism, decentralism, autonomy and federalism, self management and 'comunismo libertario', i.e. not communism, but libertarian communalism - from each according to ability - to each according to needs. These concepts and principles should be considered all in all, not partially. In general the IFA principles should be interpreted consistent with the axiomatic principles (1) - (10) defining anarchy and anarchism in chapter IV.B. on this file: System theory.
Thus: Freedom, i.e. free people, freedom without damaging the freedom of other people. Federalism without autonomy is not anarchist. Social justice means a) anarchist law and court systems, compatible with the negation of hierarchy, etc., i.e. alternatives to authoritarian juridical laws; and b) antimilitarist corps broadly defined, sufficiently strong to keep order and keep up the balances of strength, as well as stop militarism, intra- and internationally. Generally speaking, antimilitarism is not pacifism...
4. Norwegian version: Det anarkistiske idealet - anarkistenes langsiktige økonomisk-politiske mål: Det anarkistiske idealet er generelt et samfunn såvidt mulig innrettet etter anarkistiske prinsipper, som en ledestjerne for den økonomisk-politiske styringen m.v.. Prinsippene for det anarkistiske idealsamfunnet er: 100% sosialisme og autonomi i vid forstand, effektivitet (Pareto-optimalitet, også med hensyn på miljøfaktorer) og rettferdighet (ombyttekriteriet, at ingen vil bytte posisjon med noen annen, når alt kommer til alt), minimale rangs- og lønnsforskjeller - politisk/administrativt og økonomisk hierarki, herunder frihet (uten andres frihets berøvelse, slaveri og tyranni), likhet, solidaritet; sosial justis inklusive libertær (frihetlig) lov (vedtatt direkte av folket selv eller via delegater) og optimal orden, rettssikkerhet og menneskerettigheter, frie kontrakter (ikke slavekontrakter), frie initiativer, ateisme (anarkismen er et sekulært prosjekt, men innebærer full religionsfrihet), antimilitarisme (basert på gjensidig nedrustning og styrkebalanse), internasjonalisme (ikke overnasjonalisme, eller nasjonalisme), desentralisme, selvstyre og føderalisme (ikke hierarkisk, EU-aktig), selvforvaltning (autogestion) og frihetlig kommunalisme, dvs beslutninger tas i hovedsak lokalt av de vesentlig og konkret berørte - fra enhver etter evne - til enhver i følge behov. Et slikt samfunn er negasjonen av autoritet/regjering og all dens makt, hierarkier og juridiske lover. (The English and Norwegian versions were made by IIFOR in 1985 (preliminary versions), and used as study material, and later published on www.anarchy.no. They are both adopted by the later IFA-IAF and AI-IFA-IAF congresses in Oslo.)
5. These principles of social ideal anarchism constitute a leading star for anarchism in general, i.e. commune/communist, collectivist and individualist anarchism, as well as social individualist anarchism, practical social anarchy, anarchism and federalism included. To get a correct interpretation of the IFA-principles, the following should be taken into account: The Oslo-Convention, efficiency and fairness , anarchistically interpreted human rights and ethics and the economical political map, and anarchy vs other -archies. The anarchist ideal is defined by 100% socialism and autonomy, minimal income and rank differences, efficiency and fairness, consistent with the IFA- principles. When we sometimes use the words "no hierarchies" when describing the anarchist ideal, it is an approximation. The exact, practical, term is minimal hierarchies, economical and political/administrative, i.e. income- and rank-hierarchies, in an asymptotic approximation to zero hierarchies, when the society developes towards the 100% ideal, remember 1. There is more about the anarchist ideal, principles and practice in chapter III. The French, the English and the Norwegian versions complement one another and reflect some basic autonomy, and they should be interpreted consistently.
Other anarchist tendencies, eco-anarchism, anarcha-feminism, anarcho-syndicalism, etc., may bee seen as taking care of special forms of co-operations vs coercions, within the four general sectors of the anarchist quadrant on the economical political map. Say, anarchism without feminism, is only patriarchical half-anarchism, etc. However these special tendencies of anarchism should not be expanded towards general systems, because then they may be of a somewhat totalitarian nature, and thus not anarchist. As an example, if the workers' federations shall run the whole economy and politics, as a public sector monopoly , the system will probably end up very similar to the Soviet Union, and will never achieve, say, efficiency and fairness. Say, when the union is "the boss", where shall a person in conflict with this management seek support. Another workers' federation against the anarcho-syndicalist perhaps? Thus "anarcho-syndicalism" interpreted as a totalitarian system , is not anarchist. However workers' federations managing several factories in private and public sectors, in an anarcho-syndicalist way, may well be anarchist. But not if they run all , or practically all, of the enterprises. If feminism is expanded too much, the system will be matriarchy, i.e. not anarchy. Too much green/eco-anarchism will probably end up in primitivism, archie-society, which is not anarchist. Thus, these anarchist tendencies should just be tendencies , and no more.
3. IFA-kongressene i 1982, 1983 og 1984 - The IFA/IAF congresses in 1982, 1983 and 1984
A. THE FOUNDATION OF THE NORTHERN SECTION(S) OF IFA/IAF ETC.
The foundation of the Northern section(s) of IFA/IAF started with the affiliation of the Anarchist Federation of Norway. This is documented, among other things, in the Bulletin C.R.I.F.A, the official organ of IFA at that time. The "Commision de rédaction de bulletin CRIFA 145 Rue Amelot 75011 Paris France" and "C.R.I.F.A. Umberto Marzocchi Casella Postale no 22 17100 Savona (Italia)" were responsible for the publication. C.R.I.F.A. is the "Commission de relations de l'internationale des fédérations anarchistes". In C.R.I.F.A. Bulletin no 39 avril-mai 1982 p. 10 the following was reported:
DÉCLARATION D'ADHÉSION A L'INTERNATIONALE DES FÉDÉRATIONS ANARCHISTES / IFA DE LA PART DE LA FÉDÉRATION ANARCHISTE DE NORVÈGE / ANORG
L'ANORG a été fondéé à Oslo le 13 mars 1977 et a été depuis la seule organisation anarchiste de Norvège. et, ensemble avec la petite fédération syndicaliste NSF/AIT, les seules organisations libertaires dans tout le pays. L'ANORG, a des adhérents dans tout le pays. Nous vous joignons notre journal extérieur "Folkebladet" organe de l'ANORG, et nous avons également un bulletin intérieur.
Même si vous ne comprenez pas ce qui est écrit, nous pensons qu'il peut être intéressant que vous voyiez ce que les anarchistes norvégiens font.
L'ANORG a été invité par des anarchistes danois à rejoindre l'IFA. Congrès du 23-27 mars 1978, mais nous avons décidé avant d'avoir plus d'expérience et d'être capable d'y participer autant que les autres fédérations. Cependant le 15 janvier 1979 l'ANORG a voté à l'unanimité de rejoindre l'IFA sur les principes approuvés par le 3e congrès de l'IFA. Mais maintenant nous pensons qu'il est temps de participer au travail international sur un pied d'égalité avec les autres fédérations anarchistes. - Fédération anarchiste de Norvège.
A note about the founding date: "Foregangsgruppa i ANORG" - the interim group in the Anarchist Federation, rooted back to Kultursyndikatet, the Culture Syndicate in the late 1960'ties, had worked for several years as a loose network to found an anarchist federation, without semilibertarian marxists and liberal/individualists. Foregangsgruppa was formally founded 13 Mars 1977. This group did a lot of work to join the forces of the different groups and individuals of the anarchist movement, and after a wide debate, arranged the statutory general meeting of the federation, "stiftelsesmøtet", Tuesday 13. September 1977. Thus, Anarkistføderasjonen i Norge (AFIN) - Anarkistenes Organisajon (i Norge) - ANORG, the Anarchist Federation of Norway, was finally founded 13.09.1977. Folkebladet was founded in 1971, and had been the organ of different groups, before it became the organ of the Anarchist Federation. It had also been distributed internationally, mainly in Scandinavia.
The affiliation to IFA recorded in Bulletin C.R.I.F.A. no 39 avril-mai 1982, was confirmed in a letter from C.R.I.F.A. Umberto Marzocchi, dated 12th of May 1982 and another letter 09.11.1982. The first letter also urged the first Nordic Anarchist Congress. The term "Nordic" means Northern, i.e. in the North in general, as confirmed on a later congress.The Northern section(s) of IFA was founded at the first Nordic anarchist congress in Oslo, 15-18 October 1982. The Bulletin C.R.I.F.A no 42 novembre-février 1982 declared :
(There were a Spanish (p. 4) and an English (p. 5) report in this issue of the Bulletin C.R.I.F.A, but the Spanish version seems to be the most correct of the two, compared to the Swedish and Norwegian reports printed in Folkebladet, and other material. Thus we will quote the Spanish version here. Where the English version is more precise, this is noted in [...] brackets):
EL PRIMER CONGRESO ANARQUISTA NÓRDICO
El primer congreso anarquista nordico se ha celebrado del 15 al 17 de octubre del 82 en Oslo (Folkets Hus, Youngstorget). Ha estado organizado por la ANORG/IFA (Federación anarquista noruega afiliada a la IFA). Este congreso se ha celebrado según el deseo de Umberto Marzocchi, secretario de la [IFA/]CRIFA, siendo expressado en una carta el 12 de mayo del 82 a la ANORG. Estaban presentes los delegados de varios paises nórdicos así que los observadores de la SAC (Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation) ... y un representante de la Federación anarquista francesa [a delegate from the French Anarchist Federation (FAF/IFA), was also present].
El principal tema de este congreso ha sido la cooperación anarquista nórdica. El acuerdo se ha hecho sobre la aceptación de una cooperación muy ampllia. La cooperación ideológica [political] económica y cultural ha sido enfocada sobre los ountos siguientes: la acción de los anarquistas en los sindicatos, el movimiento colectivista, cooperativista, el movimiento ecologista, feminista, el apoyo a los jovenes... [politic solidarity work (for instance the Anarchist Black Cross)] y a los movimientos que luchan contra el alcoholismo y la droga. Ha sido abordado tambien todo el trabajo a efectuar concerniendo la documentación y el análisis... La meta a alcanzar es la adhesión de los anarquistas a una sección nórdica de la IFA a través de sus propios Federaciones nacionales. A este fin el congreso unánime decide la puesta en marcha de un secretariado nórdico de la IFA. Por el momento ese papel será tenido por el secretarioado administrativo [the expeditionary group] de la ANORG.... Los anarquistas que quieran adherir a la IFA podrán hacerio teniendo como intermediario el secretariado nórdico de la IFA. Estos anarquistas se encontrarán en la misma situación con respecto a la IFA que los miembros de la ANORG (decidiones, cotisaciones, etc.)
El secretariado nórdico publicará ocho bolitinos al año que serán adjuntos a Folkebladet ... o sea al boletin interior, o bién según el caso, un sepacio será reservado en sus publicaciones para las informaciones procedentes del secretariodo...
El secretariado nórdico a través del boletin
deberá contribuir a organizar actividas comunes, entre otras,
congresos, conferencieas, tribunas anarquistas, simposios,
seminarios, encuentros estivales y actividades culturales... El
secretariado deberá encargase de la coordinación de las
actividades [direct actions of different kinds] nórdicas.
El primer número del "Boletin Nórdico" editado por el congreso, ha sido publicado en suplement del número 4 de Folkebladet (año 1982). Su título es "IFA-Solidaritet" (órgano de las secciones nórdicas de la IFA).
(The reports were signed by the COMMISION DE REDACTION DU BULLETIN CRIFA. Editors note)
The conclusion of these documents recorded in Bulletin C.R.I.F.A no 39 avril-mai and no 42 novembre-février 1982, is that the Anarchist Federation of Norway - Anarkistføderasjonen i Norge (AFIN) - Anarkistenes organisasjon (i Norge) ANORG, was affiliated to IFA/IAF from 15.01 1979 with the organ "Folkebladet", and that the Northern Section(s) of IFA was/were founded and affiliated to IFA/IAF 15-17.10.1982, with the bulletin "IFA-Solidaritet", IAF-Solidarity, published in close connection to Folkebladet. The Northern section(s)' affiliation to IFA, was/were also confirmed on later IFA-congresses arranged in Oslo, and documented in issues of Bulletin C.R.I.F.A and IFA-Solidaritet, the two officially and mandated organs of IFA at that time. Furthermore, there were no opposition to these decisions recorded in the Bulletin C.R.I.F.A and IFA-Solidaritet, so they were decided by general consent.*) Some of the new Northern sections of IFA, i.e. the Danish, the Swedish and the Finnish, were in one years time refounded as IFA-federations, i.e. in 1983. This was unanimously decided upon by a general ballot, referendum, among the members of the Northern sections.This is recorded in IFA-Solidaritet, which was distributed to the other IFA/IAF-sections, among other things, via the C.R.I.F.A. The documents also imply that the IFA-secretariate in Oslo was not considered as a sub-secretariate to C.R.I.F.A, but on equal footing, i.e. as commissions for the Northern and Southern sections respectively.
The Northern sections of IFA-IAF's, and the Nordic IFA-IAF-secretariate's affiliation to the IFA-IAF is also confirmed in:
The relevant quotes, confirming the Northern sections affiliation to IFA-IAF is:
1. From Le Monde Libertaire p 9 no 509: "Le second congrès anarchiste nordique s'est déroulé du 10 au 16 juillet 1983 à Oslo... Cette rencontre organisée conjointement par 'A.N.O.R.G., l'I.F.A. et le secrétariat de l'I.F.A. nordique... Après un résumé, la résolution suivante fut approuvée à l'unanimité: "Les sections nordiques de l'I.F.A. adoptent comme projets: * Les résolutions du 1er Congrès anarchiste nordique, qui, sont bâtis sur les principes de l'I.F.A., et les rèsolutions contenues dans le présent rapport du IIe Congrès nordique...".
2. From Le Monde Libertaire no 591 1985 p 9: " L'I.F.O.R. (institut de recherche sur le mouvement anarchiste) a été créé comme la résultante d'une décision unanime de la N.I.F.A (secrétariat nordique de l'I.F.A.) et de la Fédération anarchiste universitaire le 15 août 1985 à Oslo. L'origine de ce projet s'inspire des principes de l'Internationale des fédérations anarchistes et du manifeste de l'A.N.O.R.G... Ce nouvel institut se situe dans la lignée du travail sur le "projet de recherches économique et sociale" mené par un groupe de l'A.N.O.R.G. (fédération anarchiste nordique)*... L'I.F.O.R. effectue également des recherches dans les secteurs de la documentation, de l'information et de l'éducation. L'institut publie un "Bulletin international de recherche sur l'organisation" et le "Séminaire d'économie politique" organise des cours d'étude à l'université et dans les grandes écoles, en collaboration étroite avec d'autres secteurs de l'A.N.O.R.G., tel le N.I.F.A., "Folkebladet" (journal de l'A.N.O.R.G.), les éditions de l'A.N.O.R.G..." *) The Northern Anarchist Confederation, NAC.
3. From Bulletin CRIFA no 46 1983 pp 9-12: The second Nordic Anarchist Congress. The second nordic anarchist congres took place on July 10th-16th, 1983. The organizer was the ANORG/IFA, associated with the International of the Federations of Anarchists and the NIFA, the Nordic IFA-secretariat... After summing up the following was unanimously approved of: The nordic sections of the IFA take as their program of further efforts: a) the resolutions from the 1st nordic anarchist congress, which in their turn are build on the principles of the IFA and the programm and decision of ANORG/IFA: b) the reported resolutions from the 2nd nordic congress. The report was read aloud and approved of on Saturday july 16th 1983.
The affiliation of the Northern sections/federations to IFA-IAF is also confirmed in a circular sent to the Northern sections: Circ. no 14, 18.12.1985, To all sections of IFA - About the IV congress - France, November 1986, from CRIFA/Sacchetti (in Italian). More information about the Northern Anarchist Confederation, NAC, Anarkistenes organisasjon i Norden, ANORG, is published on http://www.anarchy.no/anorg.html . This was a formal, official, invitation to the IFA-IAF congress in Paris, sent to the affiliated sections of IFA-IAF, including the Northern sections, i.e. Anarkistenes organisasjon i Norden (ANORG) - The Northern Anarchist Confederation (NAC), with its four national federations, all affiliated to IFA-IAF.
Furthermore the ANORG's programs and federations/sections of anarcha-feminism, green/eco-anarchism, anarcho-syndicalism, the affiliations to the Community Action Network, CAN, and the Anarchist Black Cross, ABC, from the 1970s, and the federations for collectivist and communist/commune anarchism; social-, social-individualist and federalist anarchism, as well as individualist and mutualist anarchism, were made valid for the North in general, as the Northern sections of IFA/IAF adopted the programs of ANORG, and the IFA-IAF secretariate in the North was established. All these sections founded in 1982 were further developed and confirmed on later congresses as sections of the Anarchist International in general, say, L'Internationale Anarchoféministe, i@f, the Anarcha-Feminst International, the sections/federations for support work, community action, research and other tendencies of anarchism broadly defined, i.e. the anarchosyndicalist International Workers of the World - IWW/AI, the Anarchist Black Cross International - ABC-I, etc. As mentioned, the Northern IFA-secretariate was considered autonomous and on equal footing with the one in the South, but in solidarity some money were paid to the South from the North, say, as documented in the Bulletin C.R.I.F.A No 47 mars-avril 1984, p.2, where it is reported on the accounting for money received: "30/9/83 Secrétariate nordique IFA, Oslo (Norvege) 21 321." It sounds like a lot of money, but it was not NOK or US$, but Italian Lira, so it was not so much. However the anarchists in the North in general are not among the plutarchs, so the NAC has not too much money for own activities either.
The anarcha feminist-program and federation/section were already established at the 3rd ANORG congress 1-7.06.1982. The 12 pages program called "Anarko feminismen", and the founding of the section/federation "Anarkofeministene" of ANORG, are documented in Folkebladet no 1-1982. This program was summarizing the research front on anarcha-feminism in a consistent way, rejecting outdated hypothesis, and bringing in some new. It was based on the following earlier works: Carol Ehrlich: Socialism, Anarchism and Feminism, Black Bear, London. Lynne Farrow: Feminism and Anarchism, Black Bear London. Jo Freeman: Tyranny of the Structurelessness, AWA (Anarchist Workers Association), Humberside. Peggy Kornegger: Anarchism: The Feminist Connection, Black Bear, London. Kytha Kurin: Anarcha-Feminism - Why the Hyphen?, Open Road no 11, Summer 1980. Emma Goldman: Kjærlighet eller ekteskap? Anarkistisk lesebok, PAX 1970. Louise Michel: Kvinnens doble kamp, Folkebladet 1-1981 and Folkebladet 1-1981: Anarko-feminismen, plus the Anarchist Manifesto of ANORG, and other feministic and anarchistic works.
The summary of this 12 pages program called " Det Anarkofeministiske Manifest" was published in Folkebladet no 1-1983/IFA-Solidaritet no 2-1983, and later in Bulletin C.R.I.F.A. No 44 mars-avril 1983 p. 12. in French. An English translation was also available. It was discussed and adopted with general consent by the Anarchist International and the anarcha-feminists of IFA in general. In 1984 the Anarcha-Feminist Manifesto was presented at the International Anarchist Gathering/Conference in Venice, discussed and thus more widely accepted, as several thousand participated there. Later it was quoted a bit and discussed in the Noam Chomsky et. al.'s journal, "Our Generation" 1 (17), Fall/Winter 1985-86, by Marsha Hewitt in an article about "Emma Goldman: The Case for Anarcho-feminism". This is also printed in "The Anarchist Papers", Black Rose Books (USA and Canada) 1986, edited by Dimitrios Roussopoulos, a book declaring it "brings together several well known anarchists and libertarian socialists in an invaluable resource...". A new edition of this book is also available.
The "Manifeste Anarchoféministe" was also published in a larger socialist paper in France, and thus the anarcha-feminists of NAC-ANORG became quite well known in this country also outside the libertarian network. Later a group, at that time located in Germany, translated it to Iranian language, and probably distributed it in Iran as well as to Iranians in Germany. We guess it is still very much needed in Iran, but it is perhaps indexed. Anyway no Fatvah is sent to the Anarcha-Feminist International so far. Later on the "Manifeste Anarchoféministe" was spread more or less world wide, presented and discussed at different meetings, conferences and collections on feminism, anarchism and anarcha-feminism, used as a framework for actions, and by now it is also presented at several web-pages on the Internet. The manifesto has also influenced other political groups' programs and actions. It is still equally valid, not a single hypothesis of the anarcha-feminist program is rejected by sound arguments so far. 08.03.2002 the Anarchafeminist International celebrated the 20 years anniversary of their manifesto, and the foundation of the i@f in 1982.
In 1983 there were 4 Northern (Norwegian, Swedish, Danish and Finnish) and 3 Southern federations (French, Italian and Iberian) in IFA/IAF plus the UAB (Bulgarian Anarchist Union) and the Northern sections outside Scandinavia. In the following years the Bulletin C.R.I.F.A declined in number of issues and quality, and it was necessary to do something to keep up the anarchist international information service. In 1984 Folkebladet and IFA-Solidaritet were gathered in one publication, and the name International Journal of Anarchism was introduced. At the same time the distribution started to develop world wide, not only in Scandinavia. Also "Brand", the Swedish anarchist paper of AFIS/APF, and later "International Journal of Organization Research", the organ of IIFOR, were included in IJA. Later on the Danish "Dialog" also was included in IJA.
Since the IJA is a direct follower of Folkebladet, the volumes of the journal are counted from the founding of Folkebladet in 1971. Thus, issues of the volumes are noted as the number of the issue, plus the volume number, say 1 (31) for the first number of the 31st volume, i.e. year 2001. These changes were also confirmed on the later Northern IFA congresses. During the last part of the 1980s the Bulletin C.R.I.F.A declined further, and finally finished publishing. Thus International Journal of Anarchism became the only officially mandated and publicly registered organ for the anarchist international IFA/IAF and the anarchist movement in general. The international journal registration number of IJA is ISSN 0800-0220. In 1996 IJA was introduced on Internet, and since 1998 it has been an electronic online-journal, distributed on the Internet and/or by e-mail world wide to anarchists and others with interest of anarchist information. There will however also be issues on paper distributed to IFA-sections and others interested in anarchy, anarchist(s) and anarchism internationally, that do not have access to e-mail or internet. IJ@ is also the organ of the International Anarchist Tribunal, founded in 1982.
The mandate for the International Journal of Anarchism, in addition to what is mentioned above, is similar to the mandate made for the Bulletin C.R.I.F.A.in the old days, decided by the International of Anarchist Federations IAF/l' Internationale des Fédérations Anarchistes IFA, updated to the modern IT-age:
We call again the decisions that have been taken at congresses of the Anarchist International IAF/IFA. After a long discussion about the development of IFA/IAF, and the best way to maintain links between the anarchists in the world, the next points have been decided:
- The IJ@ will be sent to the whole international libertarian movement (organizations, papers, reviews,...);
The IJ@ will be written in several languages: French, English, Spanish, Scandinavian, etc. and articles should be provided with an English summary. The summary may be omitted if the article is short and written in English;
- Circulars will be sent to the sections to discuss particular points and to convene reunions of work;
- Reunion of work convened by the joining sections, with summary in order to prepare these reunions. An objective of these reunions are to prepare new conferences of international campaignes.
- Internet and e-mail are suitable means to reach these ends.
In 1997 the term Anarchist International was introduced. The constitution of the Anarchist International AI was officially confirmed on the International Anarchist Congress, i.e. the 5th Anarchist Biennial, arranged by the NAC/IFA/AI in Oslo medio December 1998. The AI is a broader organization and network than the IFA anarchist federations of some countries in the South and North. The International Journal of Anarchism, IJ@, is the only officially mandated and publicly registered organ of the Anarchist International AI-IFA-IAF.This is a wider concept than the IFA/IAF meaning the affiliated federations. The Anarchist International is based on the IFA/IAF-federations, i.e. mainly in Europe, but also includes groups and individuals that are anarchists or interested in anarchist information broadly defined all over the world. The purpose of this is to work stand by for one affiliated anarchist federation in each country, so the International may be a really anarchist alternative to the UN, i.e. for the whole world. Furthermore the IJA is distributed not only to libertarians, but to "the people, anarchists and authorities world wide", including the international newsmedia. This is to inform the world of resolutions from anarchist-congresses, -conferences, -seminars, -tribunals and other activities, and to organize common actions to promote more anarchy and less authoritarian tendencies in the different countries.
*) As mentioned above the founding and membership of the Northern IFA-sections 1979-1982/3 were accepted by general consent throughout the rest of IFA, and thus it was of course not on the agenda at the congress in the South, i.e. Paris, 1986, as a few have misunderstood, where four elected delegates of the Northern IFA-sections participated by phone and written material was sent in advance, with the resolutions from the 4th IFA congress in Oslo, i.e. in the North, earlier same year, - (and not later). We have never claimed to be a member or have the secretarite of AIT-IWA-IAA. We are however friendly to AIT-IWA-IAA and CNT-AIT-Sagunto has posted on the Anarchy-debate. The ABC- network of AI is a part of the ABC world wide network, as stated above. But we don't claim monopoly on the ABC. We are the real IFA-IAF. We were well established as members of IFA-IAF long before 1986, and thus did not seek membership at the 4th IFA-IAF1986-Paris congress, this question was not on the agenda in 1986. The truth about the 1986-Paris congress, and the authoritarian shift to marxism of the southern IFA-IAF sections, is well documented at "Antimilitarism - an anarchist approach" at http://www.anarchy.no/ija238.html and "The southern IFA-IAF federations are marxist" at http://www.anarchy.no/ija338.html . Neither did we seek membership to the 5th congress of the Southern IFA-federations in 1990, because we were members of IFA-IAF long before 1986. We have not published resolutions from the congresses of the southern sections of IFA/IAF in this document, i.e. the 5th in 1990 and later congresses, because they are disallowed, not approved and rejected by the International Anarchist tribunal and the majority of the IFA/IAF federations. For the acknowledged members of the Southern sections of IFA-IAF, see http://www.anarchy.no/southern.html . For the Northern sections of IFA-IAF see http://www.anarchy.no/links.html . More about the conflict between the Southern and Northern sections is documented at THE SO CALLED "ANORG-WARNING" IS FALSE http://www.anarchy.no/anorgwarning.html .
B. MORE ABOUT THE FIRST AND THE SECOND NORTHERN IFA-CONGRESS
The documents referred in Bulletin C.R.I.F.A and IFA-Solidaritet/Folkebladet were only the summmary of the decisions from the first Northern IFA-congress. In IFA-Solidaritet no 1 (1982) with the summaries from this international anarchist congress written in Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish and English, it is also declared on page 8: "Hvis du vil: Lese mer om det som skjedde på kongressen (Del 2). Ha flere detaljer om avtalene som ble inngått på kongressen... Kontakt: Nordisk IFA-sekretariat...". "If you want: To read more of what happened at the congress. Have more details of about the agreements decided upon on the congress... Contact: The IFA secretariate in the North". There were more decisions, among other things, the following:
The first Nordic IFA-congress was also the mandating IFA-congress for the International Anarchist Tribunal, initiated by the general secretary of IFA at that time, i.e. the Italian C.R.I.F.A. secretary Umberto Marzocchi..
The Anarchist Press Tribunal (APT) is a special branch of IAT, the International Anarchist Tribunal of IAF/IFA/AI - The International of Anarchist Federations, l'Internationale des Fédérations Anarchistes, The Anarchist International:
Some facts about the International Anarchist Tribunal:
The mandating IFA-congress for the International Anarchist Tribunal was initiated by the general secretary of IFA at that time, i.e. the Italian C.R.I.F.A. secretary Umberto Marzocchi, in a letter to the nordic sections of IFA (ANORG) dated 12th of May 1982. The congress took place in Oslo 15-18th of October 1982, at "Folkets hus", i.e. "The house of the people", and was arranged by the Norwegian Anarchist Federation affiliated to IFA. The first Nordic IFA-congress had two important tasks:
1. to promote the anarchist international outside the mediterranean area in general,
2. to mandate the international's anarchist tribunals to secure that the IFA stays anarchist.
From the Nordic countries broadly defined participated several anarchist groups and organizations, and nationalities (sections) from the Netherlands to Finland; and the mediterranean IFA-sections were represented by a delegation from Paris, i.e. from the French anarchist-federation "Fédération Anarchiste Francaise". Different kinds of anarchists; collectivists, individualists and communist anarchists, as well as green anarchists and international anarchafeminists had delegates (sections) at the congress. Also Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (SAC) participated, as well as delegates from the IAA section of ANORG/IFA, a confederation rooted back to the Scandinavian anarcho-syndicalist organ "Solidaritet" which kept the bounds to the AIT when SAC left in 1959/60. (This does not mean that NAC/ANORG is a member of IAA/AIT. It means that anarchosyndicalists that were or are affilated to an IAA/AIT-section, also were affiliated to the congress/ANORG/IFA).
The mandate for the anarchist tribunals was unanimously decided upon, and referred (however without details) in IFA-Solidaritet, later renamed International Journal of Anarchism, vol 1982 a.s.o. and the Bulletin C.R.I.F.A. (42) 1982, the two official organs of IFA at that time. This issue of the Bulletin C.R.I.F.A was also distributed as a supplement to the French anarchist paper "Le Monde Libertaire" (467). An English translation was also distributed. In the mentioned issue of Bulletin C.R.I.F.A. the following is documented:
"El primer congreso anarquista nordico se ha celebrado del 15 al 17 de octubre del 82 en Oslo. Ha estado organizado por la ANORG/IFA (Federación anarquista noruega afiliada a la IFA)... El secretariado nórdico a través del boletin deberá contribuir a organizar actividades comunes, entre otras, ..., tribunas anarquistas [i.e. the International Anarchist Tribunal] , ... " The bulletin, "Su título es "IFA-Solidariet" (órgano de las secciones nórdicas de la IFA)" (Bold lettering and explaining note in [..] sat by editor.)
The mandate included the UN-human rights and ethics interpreted in an anarchist way, media tribunals, anarchist decision processing and conflict solution, including a confederal veto on ratification of federal decisions and constitution, i.e. based on the IFA-principles a.s.o., membership acknowledgement, suspensions, disallowances and exclusions/expulsions, etc. The international anarchist ombudsman for conflict solution and the arbitration tribunal , are also among the branches of IAT. The practical details of the mandate were left to the International Anarchist Tribunal itself, as an independent and autonomous institution at the IFA secretariate in Oslo. The International Anarchist Tribunal via the Anarchist Press Tribunal issues expelling Brown Cards to ochlarchist infiltrators to the anarchist movement as a part of the Anarchist Internationals general struggle against ochlarchy (mob rule) and ochlarchist infiltration. Ochlarchist infiltrators are of course not a part of the anarchist movement although often posing as anarchists.
The Anarchist Tribunal was already an established institution in Norway in 1982, as a part of the expeditionary group (secretariate) of ANORG. In the early 1980s the activities was mainly internal, but some of the works of the Anarchist Tribunal , i.e. vis-à-vis the media, were also published in Folkebladet/IJ@, see no 1 (13) 1983 and no 3 (13) 1983. The IFA congress in Oslo 1982 made it an international tribunal. Thus, it became de facto the International Anarchist Tribunal - IAT, although the word "international" was usually not explicitely mentioned in the early days.
The framework for the Oslo Convention of 1990 was prepared by the International Anarchist Tribunal, and is a good example of the mandated work. The proposals from IAT were unanimously decided upon by the international congress-seminar, the 1st Anarchist Biennial , i.e. the first combined IFA & FICEDL Congress arranged in Oslo 1990.
The only officially mandated organ of IFA/IAF/AI of today, i.e. for the whole world, the International Journal of Anarchism ISSN 0800-0220, is also the organ of the International Anarchist tribunal, and has the copyright/TM of the original IFA-logo, with the globe as the dot over the "i" in "ifa". All information at the official ifa/iaf/ai/AIIS web-site is the copyrighted material of International Journal of Anarchism ISSN 0800-0220 (c) fb@ - all rights reserved 1996 a.l.
In 1997 the term Anarchist International (AI) was officially introduced, although mentioned several times before, say, in International Journal of Anarchism , IJ @ no 10/26 (15) in 1985. The constitution of the Anarchist International AI was officially confirmed on the International Anarchist Congress, i.e. the 5th Anarchist Biennial, arranged by the NAC/IFA/AI in Oslo medio December 1998. The AI is a broader organization and network than the IFA anarchist federations of some countries in the South and North, see http://www.anarchy.no/ai.html . The mandate of the IAT is today vis-à-vis the AI, decided on the 5th Anarchist Biennial.
The IAT has handed out a BROWN CARD TO JAMAL HANNAH, PETER BACH, ROBERT WOGATZE AND THE SOUTHERN IFA-IAF FEDERATIONS 01.08.2008, see http://www.anarchy.no/browncard.html . This Brown Card is handed out to all the Southern IFA/IAF-federations except the Spanish FAI and the Argentinian FLA, that are considered less authoritarian. Also the semi-southern British and Anglophone Anarchist Federation http://www.anarchy.no/afb.html has not got a Brown Card.
På IFA-kongressen i 1982 ble det også vedtatt flere mandater for IFA-sekretariaet i Oslo, bl.a retten til å arrangere kongresser, seminarer, symposier og konferanser, samt utgivelse av bulletinen IFA-Solidaritet, senere endret til International Journal of Anarchism - FB ISSN 0800 0220:
"El primer congreso anarquista nordico se ha celebrado del 15 al 17 de octubre del 82 en Oslo. Ha estado organizado por la ANORG/IFA (Federación anarquista noruega afiliada a la IFA)... El secretariado nórdico a través del boletin deberá contribuir a organizar actividades comunes, entre otras, congresos, conferencias, tribunas anarquistas, simposios, seminarios, encuentros estivales y actividades culturales. El congreso a decidido que la ANORG organizará un encuentro nórdico la segunda semana de julio del 83." Bulletinen, "Su título es "IFA-Solidariet" (órgano de las secciones nórdicas de la IFA)", ble knyttet til utgivelsen av Folkebladet. Kilde: Bulletin C.R.I.F.A (42) 1982.
Samtidig ble det opprettet tre IFA-seksjoner (pre-føderasjoner) for Danmark, Sverige og Finland, som kom i tillegg til den norske seksjonen, som alt var en føderasjon, tilsluttet IFA. Det ble også etterhvert etablert et nettverk av IFA-seksjoner i Nord mer generelt.
På kongressen 10-16/6 1983, the second Northern IFA/IAF congress, ble mandatet til IFA-sekretariatet i Oslo presisert til å gjelde landene i nord generelt, og ikke bare de skandinaviske land:
"Nordic matters are questions which affect more than one of the countries of the North considerably and concretely... The nordic sections of the IFA take as their program of further efforts: a) the resolutions from the 1st nordic anarchist congress, which in their turn are build on the principles of the IFA and the program and decisions of ANORG/IFA; b) the reported resolutions from the 2nd nordic congress." Source: Bulletin C.R.I.F.A (46) 1983, and Congrès anarchiste nordique et camp d'été 83: The second congress, Le Monde Libertaire, no 509 1983 p 9, French.
Den 26/11-1983 ble, ved uravstemning i IFAs nordiske seksjoner, Anarkistføderasjonen i Norge (AFIN) også kalt ANarkistenes ORGanisasjon - ANORG/IFA [medlem av IFA fra 1979, jevnfør Bulletin C.R.I.F.A No(39) 1982 og No (42) 1983], Anarkistfederationen i Sverige (AFIS), Anarkistføderationen i Danmark (AFID) og Suomen Anarkistifederaatio (SA) - Anarkistfederationen i Finland (AFIF), tilsluttet både IFA og Anarkistenes Organisasjon i Norden (ANORG-konføderasjonen - The Northern Anarchist Confederation - NAC). Vedtaket var enstemmig. "ANORG er nå forkortelse for ANarkistenes ORGanisasjon i Norden" ble det fastslått i IFA-Solidaritet (8) 1983. Anarkistføderasjonen i Norge forkortes gjerne til A.NORG eller AFIN for å skille denne fra den nordiske konføderasjonen (ANORG/NAC).
C. UTVIKLINGEN I 1984 OG VIDERE - THE DEVELOPMENT IN 1984 AND FURTHER
I 1984 ble mandatet utvidet til tilsvarende organisering på verdensbasis, og "IFA-Solidaritet"/fb ble i denne sammenheng omdannet til "International Journal of Anarchism". Dette hadde sin årsak i at Bulletin C.R.I.F.A kom stadig sjeldnere og med dårligere trykk/kopiering, og i det hele tatt svekket internasjonal aktivitet fra de sørlige IFA-føderasjonenes side, mindre forbindelse mellom norden og Paris og Italia. På slutten av 1980-årene stoppet C.R.I.F.A. bulletinen etterhvert helt opp, og IJA ble det eneste offisielt mandaterte og offentlig registrerte organ for anarkistinternasjonalen IFA/IAF, og den internasjonale anarkistbevegelsen generelt.
Det ble fra NACs side enighet om å satse mer på utvikling fra den nordlige seksjonen, utover i verden, uten dermed å gå middelhavslandenes føderasjoner direkte i næringen. Det ble etterhvert tatt flere kontakter i Nederland, Polen, Portugal, Canada, USA, Israel, Australia etc. bl.a via FICEDL nettverket. Beslutningene ble ratifisert på den tredje IFA-kongressen i Oslo 6/10 1984, jevnfør International Journal of Anarchism (tidligere IFA-Solidaritet) FB (2) 1984.
Folkebladet, IFA-Solidaritet og International Journal of Anarchism ble altså slått sammen til et blad, for å øke effektiviteten og spare på kostnadene. Også det svenske anarkistorganet "Brand" til APF/AFIS og senere "International Journal of Organization Research", organet til IIFOR, ble tatt opp i International Journal of Anarchism/folkebladet. Nummereringen fulgte Folkebladet, slik at man fikk mest mulig kontinuerlige årganger fra Folkebladet ble startet i 1971. Dermed regner International Journal of Anarchism sine årganger fra 1971. NAC satser på "horizontal organization on equal footing, and co-operation without coercion" generelt i et internasjonalt nettverk av IFA-seksjoner/føderasjoner, og innad i Norden. I 1986 ble den fjerde nordiske IFA-kongressen holdt, like før de sørlige føderasjonene pluss UAB holdt sin fjerde kongress i Paris. Resolusjonene fra den nordlige IFA-kongress ble sendt til Paris, som forslag til videre samarbeid, og IFA-sekretariatet i Oslo deltok på kongressen som en delegasjon via telefon, (fire delegater var demokratisk valgt til å framføre synspunktene fra Nord), men responsen var svak og det kom ikke noen nye skriftlige samarbeidsavtaler eller felles vedtak ut av det. Det har vist seg vanskelig å få igang felles aksjoner mellom nord og sør. I Nord var det støtteaksjoner bl.a for Radio Libertaire i Paris, da den var i krise, og det ble også sendt noe solidarisk pengestøtte til C.R.I.F.A, men da Nordseksjonen trengte internasjonal solidaritet til en streik i Danmark, var det ingen oppfølging fra Sør, til tross for gjentatte henvendelser. På AFIN's 5. kongress oktober 1984 ble "Antimilitarism - an anarchist approach" ISBN 82-90468-11-3 vedtatt enstemming. Denne resolusjonen ble også enstemmig vedtatt på den 4. nordiske IFA-kongressen 17.-19. september 1986, sammen med nordiske vedtak og forslag til den sydlige IFA-kongressen i Paris senere samme år. Se http://www.anarchy.no/ija238.html
Det har vært noe utveksling av informasjon mellom den nordlige IFA-seksjonen og den sørlige, og kommer det en sak som har felles interesse, kan det igjen bli snakk om et nærmere samarbeid. En slik sak dukket opp i 2001. Etter en lengre periode med ganske labert samarbeide mellom nord og sør, ble det igjen mer fart i sakene med felles støtteaksjoner for anarkister, inkludert anarko-syndikalister, i Argentina, se IJ@ nr 6 (31) på http://www.anarchy.no/ija631.html . Denne kooperative samaksjonen har i noen grad fortsatt også senere. IFA-sekretariatet i Nord, som også huser Anarkist Internasjonalens generelle sekretariat, dvs Internett-sekretariat og kommisjon, har også gått i bresjen for støtteaksoner for anarkisten og forfatteren Edgar Rodrigues, som har blitt mobbet og boikottet av sin fagforening i Brazil.
ABOUT THE SOUTHERN IFA-IAF FEDERATIONS' POSITION ON THE ECONOMIC-POLITICAL MAP AND THE 4TH IFA-IAF CONGRESSES IN 1986
The southern IFA-IAF-federations, especially the French and the Italian, have a quite similar position as the Socialist Left marxist party SV and the marxist-leninist Rødt in Norway and similar authoritarian marxist parties, i.e. a.o.t. in practice a totalitarian pacifism . It must be mentioned that FAF printed the article by Fedération anarchiste scandinavie [The Northern Anarchist Confederation, NAC]: Non au pacifisme totalitaire! in Le Monde Libertaire, no 557 p 9, without comments. The authoritarian move happened afterwards. The majority of FAF turned "pacifist, but not non-violent" according to Marc Nagels of FAF, the french IFA-federation, at an IFA-meeting with the delegate from the northern IFA-federations at the FAF congress in 1985. This marxist dialectical statement speaks for itself. The southern IFA-federations are also strongly against NATO at least since 1985/86. The Italian IFA federation (FAI) had a lot of total draft rejectors. At an IFA-meeting related to the FAF-congress in 1985 between the delegate from the northern IFA-federations and the few comrades of Bulgarian anarchist union (UAB) lead by Balkanski, the UAB acted very disrespectfully vis-a-vis the antimilitaist policy of AFIN, i.e. authoritarian and threatening. The UAB turned out to be very like a marxist Soviet Union in miniature. On this background the International Anarchist Tribunal decided that this union was not an IFA-federation, from 1986. The very authoritarian, marxist style of Balkanski & Co was however debated and confirmed on the anarchist conference, "TECNOLOGIA E LIBERDADE", in Portugal 1897, by a.o. the Italian delegation.
At an IFA-meeting with a spokeswoman for a real anarchist tendency within the FAF, Patrica Fau, she warned about "trotskyist friends" within FAF. After the Nordic IFA-secretariate had sent the proposals from the 4th Nordic IFA-congress in Oslo 1986 to the IFA-congress in Paris later same year, Patricia Fau phoned the Nordic IFA-secretariate and said the fraction of "trotskyist friends" within the FAF had taken over the organization. No surprise the proposals from the northern IFA-federations were totally suppressed at the 4th IFA-congress in Paris 1986, were the northern IFA-federations' four delegates participated by phone. They were not mentioned at all in the documents of this congress. This suppression also shows the southern IFA-federations' total disrespect for the autonomy of the northern IFA-federations regarding policy. The whole 4th IFA-congress was an authoritarian marxistoid farce. This is the opposite of the negation of hierarchy. This tendency of marxist leftist/collevist/communism of FAF were also later confirmed in an issue of A-infos, the bulletin of the FAF's external secretariate, that had an article that concluded with "trotskyist friend". The FAF's bulletin A-infos must not be mixed up with the web-news A-infos.
The Iberian IFA-federation (FAI) was a bit less authoritarian than the French and Italian, but all in all in this, and the resolutions from the 4th IFA-congress in Paris 1986, show a clearly marxist leftist/collectivist/communist dominant tendency from 1985/1986. To save the IFA from this marxism, the majority of IFA, the four northern IFA-federations, decided to reorganize the IFA, see next chapter. The marxist tendency has been worse and more authoritarian over the years. In 2007 in an e-mail to "Royce" that was published on a discussion fora on internet, the secretary of the southern IFA-IAF federations - now British, stated " The main problem is some lunatic in Norway who operates under the websites you have mentioned." i.e. www.anarchy.no. Thus the southern IFA-IAF federations state that the people that disagree with them are lunatic, just like in the Soviet Union. This only confirms the marxist leftist/collectivist/communist position of the southern IFA-IAF federations. There have also been weird smearstories on Internet produced by the marxists Jamal Hannah, Peter Bach et. al. that IJA is not a real organ of the Anarchist International and IFA/IAF a.s.o. This is probably rooted back to some intrigues against the northern sections of IFA-IAF from some of the southern IFA- federations (not the Spanish) similar to Marx's intrigues etc. against Bakunin in the First International. See http://www.anarchy.no/mandate.html , http://www.anarchy.no/iwwai.html and http://www.anarchy.no/afid.html . We have rejected and turned these lies and smearstories down about 100% at http://www.anarchy.no/anorgwarning.html .
The whole problem with the marxist leftist/collectivist/communist position of the southern IFA-IAF federations started with a coup d'etat against the CRIFA-secretary Umberto Marzocchi, that was forced to leave CRIFA involentarely, and replaced with Giorgio Sacchetti in 1983. While Marzocchi was a man with a real anarchist interpretation of the IFA-principles, and respected the northern IFA-Federations autonomy regarding policy and strategy, Sacchetti had a wrong interpretation. This situation only worsened when the FAF took over the CRIFA in 1986. Marzocchi died in 1986, and most of the anarchism in the southern Europe, and the fight against "Cohn Bendit et autres gauchistes", i.e. the children of Marx, died with him.
The Anarchist Federation of Norway - Anarkistføderasjonen i Norge (AFIN) - Anarkistenes organisasjon (i Norge) ANORG, was affiliated to IFA/IAF, the International of Anarchist Federations 15.01 1979. This is confirmed in Bulletin C.R.I.F.A no 39 avril-mai 1982, and no 42 novembre-février 1982, also with the report from the first Nordic IFA-congress in Oslo, with the foundation of the Nordic IFA-IAF-secretariate. These documents also imply that the IFA-secretariate in Oslo was not considered as a sub-secretariate to C.R.I.F.A, but on equal footing, i.e. as commissions for the northern and southern sections respectively. The Danish, the Swedish and the Finnish anarchist federations became members of IFA/IAF in 1983. In 1983 there were 4 northern, the Norwegian, Swedish, Danish and Finnish and 3 southern federations, the French, Italian and Iberian in IFA/IAF plus the UAB, Bulgarian Anarchist Union. See http://www.anarchy.no/mandate.html , http://www.anarchy.no/ifadok.html and http://www.anarchy.no/ifa.html .
In 1986, at the fourth IFA-congresses in the north, and in the south where NAC, The Northern Anarchist Confederation's four federations participated by phone, the southern IFA-federations, the French, Spanish and Italian turned leftwards at the economical political map due to leftist-marxist tendencies. They thus left the anarchist quadrant on the economical-political map. The three southern IFA-federationas turned out to be "the children of Marx". (The Bulgarian Anarchist Union, UAB, was as mentioned not a federation, but an authoritarian group, and thus not recognized by the International Anarchist Tribunal as a member of IAF-IFA.) This leftist-authoritarian position of the southern IFA federations made it necessary to reorganize the IFA to save it from the marxist- leftist positions. Thus, the majority of the IFA federations, the four northern, decided to reorganize the IFA, and started the Anarchist Biennials, a series of international anarchist congresses, the first one in 1990. The three southern IFA-federations and their secretariate were suspended by the majority of the federations, the four northern, and the International Anarchist Tribunal, see http://www.anarchy.no/aptm.html , and the resolutions of their later congresses were disallowed. This was unanimously decided by the four delegates of the northern sections of IFA-IAF and IAT that participated by phone at the IFA-IAF congress in Paris 31 october to 3 november 1986, and confirmed at later congresses in Oslo.
The suspension and the disallowance of their congresses will remain until the marxist-authoritarian tendency of the southern IFA-IAF-federations is removed. So far this has not happened. Thus the resolutions from their congresses from the fifth in 1990 and later are disallowed, due to significant marxist authoritarian tendencies, and the Nordic IFA/IAF-secretariate has been the world secretariate, since 1986, see http://www.anarchy.no/wscifa.html . The secretariate and federations stand firm on the IFA/IAF-principles, see above. More about the conflict between the southern IFA/IAF-federations and the northern sections, see http://www.anarchy.no/southern.html .
The Anarchist International is a broader network than the IFA/IAF-sections in the north and south. At the founding congress of the broader network in 1988, the following was stated: "The Anarchist International is a global, undogmatic, free thinking, nonsectarian modern anarchist international, with sections for anarchoindividualist, anarchocollectivist, social individualist and mutualist anarchist and anarchocommunist as well as green/ecoanarchist, anarchosyndicalist and anarchafeminist anarchists. The southern IFA/IAF is a dogmatic, sectarian communist "anarchist", leftist marxistoid organization with little interest for the Anarchist International. The southern IFA/IAF is more communist than anarchist, i.e. collectivist on the economical political map. Outside the anarchist quadrant on the map, far left in the marxist quadrant." More information at "The southern IFA-IAF-federations are marxist" http://www.anarchy.no/ija338.html , "Antimiliarism - an anarchist approach" http://www.anarchy.no/ija238.html and About the northern and southern sections of IFA-IAF and the Anarchist International AI-IFA-IAF - Appendix: Anarchism and syndicalism in Norway about 1850 - 2000 http://www.anarchy.no/ija235.html .
IV. THE AI-IFA-IAF CONGRESSES IN THE LATE 1980-IES, THE 1990-IES AND 2000-S AND DIRECT ACTIONS OF AI-IFA-IAF
Det ble avholdt en rekke internasjonale anarkistkongresser i, eller organisert fra, Oslo i siste halvdel av 1980-årene og i 1990 årene. The 5th Northern IFA/IAF congress in Oslo was arranged 17.-18. September 1987, see http://www.anarchy.no/ija1984-94.html .The 6th Northern IFA/IAF congress was hold in Oslo 15.-17. september 1988, see the same URL. The 7th Northern IFA/IAF congress was arranged in Oslo 15.-17. september 1989, see the same URL and a resolution from the congress "Anarki eller kaos [Anarchy or Chaos]" ISBN 82-90468-19-9.
En toårlig serie av internasjonale kongress-seminarer, som startet i 1990 (Anarchist Biennials) er viktig. I 1990 ble den internasjonalt berømte Oslo-konvensjonen vedtatt.
Resolution unanimously decided upon by the first combined IFA & FICEDL Congress in Oslo 1990
1. Authoritarians notoriously mix up anarchy, anarchist and anarchism with authoritarian tendencies : Chaos, disorder, mob rule*, lawlessness, the law of the jungle, criminality, riots, theft, corruption, drugs, mafia, terrorism, autocratic rule, the right to the strongest, antisocial tyrannic behavior, etc. i.e. different types of superiors and subordinates .
2. The word anarchy origins from greek. The prefix "an" means "negation of" as in anaerobe versus aerobe and "arch" means "superior, i.e. in contrast to subordinates", as in archbishop, archangel, archduke, arch villain, etc. Thus anarchy, anarchism, anarchist, a.s.o., mean coordination on equal footing, without superiors and subordinates , i.e. horizontal organization and co-operation without coercion. This is the opposite of the above mentioned authoritarian tendencies, i.e. different types of superiors and subordinates.
3. The above mentioned mixtures of anarchist and authoritarian tendencies are principal contradictions similar to the Newspeak slogan "peace is war" in Orwell's "1984", and have correspondent repressive functions. Anarchists won't have any of that! For obvious reasons significant mixtures of anarchist and authoritarian tendencies should be denounced , i.e. as a general anarchist opinion, now and in the future. These actions may be taken on individual, municipal or international level, dependent on the situation.
The media may act a) as a free press or b) as The 4th power of the state, i.e. generally give a negative and wrong description of anarchy and anarchism, mixing up authoritarian and anarchist ideas and roles. "The Bureaucracy" as a class concept is all superiors, i.e. criminal or not, in private and public sectors. "The People" are "The Total Population" minus "The Bureaucracy". The part of the people generally following and supporting The Bureaucracy, that is the ramifications of The Bureaucracy. We think a good reporter cannot be a part of The Bureaucracy or its ramifications. Reporters, spokesmen and others, breaking the Oslo convention severely, or several times, will receive the BROWN CARD** as a symbol of free criticism. Authoritarian journalism and similar must be criticized in a relevant way!
*) The Greek rooted word for mob rule is ochlarchy. Ochlarchy broadly defined may also be used as a common word for all the authoritarian evils mentioned in part 1. above, i.e. in general lack of security and law and order in a society as a public sector service. This is ochlarchy, the opposite of anarchy, i.e. based on libertarian law and order and security as public sector services, according to the anarchist (IFA) principle of social justice. The ones doing ochlarchy broadly defined are called ochlarchists, i.e. the opposite of anarchists. Sufficient public service of policing is important. Man is not like ants who cooperate socially, naturally and voluntarely without coercion/repression automatically by themselves. Thus, doing away with the existing rule or tendencies of authority may easily result in ochlarchy, mob rule, and not anarchy, if not a firm horizontal social organization, ideally or practically is established with a sufficient police corps to create security and libertarian law and order and to do away with tendencies towards ochlarchy. See http://www.anarchy.no/a_e_p_m.html and search for the keywords "law" and "corps". Furthermore it must be mentioned that variation in the degree of "flatness" of organizations/federations of different purposes and aims may be optimal, say, a police or defence corps organization/federation may have a somewhat less degree of flatness than a study circle. And the police corps shall of course be well educated in libertarian human rights and policing and be democratically regulated and controlled, and bully types, corrupt and other "brown", ochlarchical elements should be expelled mainly during the education prosess and thus stopped from participating in the police corps. Regarding law and order a combination of private security firms and a horizontally organized public sector with anarchist courts on local, regional and confederal level, it is the best solution. Some law and order services are collective or semicollective and they will most efficiently be handled by a horizontally organized public sector. Competing court services sold for means of payment will be significantly corrupt and not making equality before the law. It will be "law and order" for the relatively rich, they will have it their way, and no real law and order for the relatively poor. The definition of theft is when you get something for nothing (and it is not a gift). Free goods and services, say air, are gifts from nature.
Anarchist laws, according to the principles of social justice and the negation of juridical laws, should be decided by the people, direct democratic or by delegates, and compatible with anarchist principles in general, human rights included, rooted back to natural law . Juridical laws mainly mean decided by authorities, lawyers, the mob, etc., i.e. authoritarian laws. As an example, most of the laws in Norway are non-authoritarian, there are however also some authoritarian laws, because the degree of anarchy is only ca 53-54%, i.e. significant anarchist, but not ideal. Thus, the law and court system of anarchy is quite similar to other democratic law and court systems, only less authoritarian, and more reflecting human rights (interpreted in an anarchist, non-authoritarian way). The International Anarchist Tribunals of I.F.A./A.I. are a special branch of anarchist law and court systems, see http://www.anarchy.no/iat.html .
The general idea is that anarchist laws should be decided from the bottom, the people, and upwards, not from the top downwards. That is law without State in the anarchist meaning. The people decide their own laws when the laws are decided. Thus it is selfmanagement. Of course the minorities rights must be respected in case of anarchist direct democracy, according to anarchist principles. Preferably decisions shold be made by general consent. In case where this is not possible the majority will decide, but they must compensate the minority in different ways to secure their rights. Economic compensation may sometimes be used. In anyway the majority will only be able to offer the minority a free contract, not a slave contract. Thus majority dictatorship will be avoided, as well as minority dictatorship, in an anarchist direct democracy.
Financing the public sector - social subscription vs taxes: We are here first discussing the anarchist ideal. If the people, say in a commune, decide with general consent a social subscription to finance a horizontally organized public sector, then it is 100% voluntarely. Thus there is no taxation involved. General consent is that a lot are for, and no one is against. In an anarchy of a high degree all the members of the society are anarchists and they have developed a consensus culture based on negotiations and a will to come to an agreement. In the case where there is no general consent, the majority may decide a social subscription for their part only to finance the public sector. The minority must then as far as possible be denied the public goods and services. In case where this is not possible, the question of "free riders" appear. In some cases "free riding" may bee seen as theft (theft= you get something for nothing, and it is not a gift), in other cases as a gift. Thus there may be different solutions to the "free rider" problem. In less ideal anarchism there may be degrees of social subscription vs taxes. The anarchists are in these cases for as little as possible coercion.
The AI and IAT have never expressed that an anarchist society of high degree of anarchy, should be organized in one way, or one homogenous system. The general idea is that the people really concerned of a case should be the ones that decide, in a horizontal way, alone in individual matters, two toghether in bilateral matters, three toghether in trilateral matters, etc., local matters decided locally, regional matters regionally, and general cases for a whole society (say a country) decided by all members of society together (preferably with general consent, based on a consensus-culture, with negotiations etc). Thus individually, locally and regionally, there may be several different systems within the framework of horizontal organizations, but for the general cases for a whole society, there may be only one system at a time, as far as the AI and IAT can see today. This general organization may of course change over time, because horizontal organization always may be improved, different working hypothesis may be put in place and rejected if it doesn't work. etc. But there must be ways to decide in general matters in an orderly anarchist way, or else it will be chaotic and ochlarchy. This could be investigated more. There may be several ways to make general decisions, that is reasonable horizontal. These several competing systems may be investigated in advance, so there is a large menu to choose from in an anarchist society of high degree, close to the anarchist ideal at the top of the economical-political map.
Briefly defined anarchy and anarchism are coordination on equal footing, without superiors and subordinates, i.e. horizontal organization and co-operation without coercion. This means practically or ideally, i.e. ordinary vs perfect horizontal organization respectively. Anarchy and anarchism mean "system and management without ruler(s), i.e. co-operation without repression, tyranny and slavery". In short an-arch-y = [(an = without - arch = ruler(s)) - y = system (included optimal order and law) and management, as, say, in monarch-y]. Anarchy and anarchism are efficient and fair system and management without top heavy societal pyramid economical and/or political/administrative - in income and/or rank, i.e. significant horizontal organization. Thus, anarchy and anarchism mean real democracy, economical and political/administrative, in private and public sector.
**) Ochlarchists, i.e. people and organizations/groups infiltrating the anarchistmovement and posing as anarchists and doing ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined), getting the BROWN CARD, are expelled from the anarchist movement. Thus, receiving the BROWN CARD in this case means expulsion from the anarchist movement. Other ochlarchists may also get the BROWN CARD, but they are of course not expelled from the anarchist movement because they did not pose as anarchists anyway.
Other resolutions from the 1th combined IFA/IAF FICEDL congress 14.-15 september 1990 are published in IJA 3-16(20), see http://www.anarchy.no/ija1984-94.html .
The resolutions from the 2nd 1992 and the 3rd 1994 International IFA/IAF-FICEDL Anarchist Congresses, i.e. Anarchist Biennials, are found at http://www.anarchy.no/ija1984-94.html .
I 1996 gikk NAC/Northern IFA-section(s) på nettet (Internett), primært for den nordlige delen av IFA, men også med web-sider for hele IFA. En side for det anarkistiske verdensnettverket kalt Anarkist Internasjonalen (The Anarchist International, AI) med knutepunkt i Oslo, er også etablert. AI er et videre nettverk enn det som består av de nasjonale anarkistføderasjonene i Sør og Nord i mer snever forstand. Anarkist Internasjonalens sekretariatet kalles WSC-IFA, se link-siden til AIIS. The AIIS was confirmed as an organ of IFA/IAF at the 4th 1996 International IFA/IAF-FICEDL Anarchist Congress, i.e. Anarchist Biennial, arranged in Oslo.
The Anarchist International is a broader network than the IFA/IAF-sections in the north and south. At the founding congress of the broader network in 1988, later confirmed at the International Anarchist Congress, i.e. the 5th Anarchist Biennial, arranged by the NAC/IFA/AI in Oslo medio December 1998, the following was stated: "The Anarchist International is a global, undogmatic, free thinking, nonsectarian modern anarchist international, with sections for anarchoindividualist, anarchocollectivist, social individualist and mutualist anarchist and anarchocommunist as well as green/ecoanarchist, anarchosyndicalist and anarchafeminist anarchists. The southern IFA/IAF is a dogmatic, sectarian communist "anarchist", leftist marxistoid organization with little interest for the Anarchist International. The southern IFA/IAF is more communist than anarchist, i.e. collectivist on the economical political map. Outside the anarchist quadrant on the map, far left in the marxist quadrant." At the congress in 1998 the AIIS and IJA were confirmed as official organs of AI-IAF-IAF. This was also confirmed at the 6th 2000 International IFA/IAF-FICEDL Anarchist Congress, i.e. Anarchist Biennial. The resolutions from the 7th 2002, 8th 2004, 9th 2006,10th 2008, 11th 2010 and the 12th 2012 International IFA/IAF-FICEDL Anarchist Congresses, i.e. Anarchist Biennials, arranged in Oslo at Internet, are published att http://www.anarchy.no/ai.html .
DIRECT ACTIONS ETC
The history, resolutions, actions, etc. of AI-IFA-IAF and AFIN are summarized at web-pages found via "links" below and at the main page of the Anarchist International www.anarchy.no .
The main direct action - and breakthrough - of AI-IFA-IAF and AFIN was the anarchist velvet revolutionary change in Norway in 1994/95, where AFIN and AI-IFA-IAF were in the forefront in the revolution, see http://www.anarchy.no/a_nor.html and http://www.anarchy.no/ija1994-96.html .
That is confirmed by a.o.t CNN. After the EU-referendum and revolutionary change the CNN (after a little help from the AIT/AIIS) reported: "an almost perfect society" etc , about the Norwegian economic-political system. The connection between AIIS/AI and CNN in those years (1994-95) was officially confirmed in a letter from a CNN/Turner official indicating a.o.t. the information from AIT/AIIS was interesting and intelligent. As this is perhaps a political document of some interest we will describe it a bit more. The envelope has the Turner logo and the sender organization's name is "Turner Broadcasting International Limited" , addressed to S. Olsen, Anarkistenes Informasjonstjeneste [AIIS/AI], c/o F.B. P.B. 4777 Sofienberg N - 0506 Oslo, Norway . The letter, dated 7 March 1995 , says a.o.t. the following: "Dear S. Olsen, Thank you very much for comments on the network's programming. We appreciate your feedback... We [however] do not have the capacity to reply to each of your faxes in turn. They are very informative but also quite substantial!... Thank you for your cooperation. With best whises, Dale Langley - Press Officer. CNN INTERNATIONAL," i.e. at the CNN's London office, UK . Well, 'plenty all right - too much no good' as one of the AI councillors often says, - anyway the AIIS/AI spread the telefaxes on different offices of CNN and other newsmedia to be more cooperative. The main point is that CNN and other newsmedia responded to several of the AIIS/AI faxes in their news.
Soon after the No-vote was known, the CNN and othe main international newsmedia reported that this was due to "Nationalistic" and "Non-internationalistic" [authoritarian, backwards] tendencies, based on disinformation from the Yes to EU government in Norway. However the Anarchist International Information Service AIIS - Anarkistenes Informasjonstjenest AIT - minutes after these newsreports faxed a message to main international newsmedia, including CNN, stating that Norway was libertarian, and [soon] anarchist. Soon after the CNN responded to the AIIS-faxes and changed the news, reporting about: "an almost perfect society", regarding the Norwegian economic-political system. Also other main international newsmedia changed their reports in a similar way. They however did not mention AIIS as a source, but they clearly responded by changing the news according to the facts from AIIS. In the next weeks and months the AIIS sent several faxes clearing up disinformation from the Yes-to EU government, which international newsmedia, including CNN, responded to in a similar way. The letter from CNN confirms that the CNN responded in this way to some, but not all, of the faxes from AIIS.
The velvet anarchist revolution made Norway an anarchist society of low degree, and it has been anarchist since then. This is also confirmed in the paper editions of the two main economic newspapers in Norway, Dagens Næringsliv Dagens Næringsliv 2/3 June 2007 p. 3 and Finansavisen 17.10. 2007 p. 64, see http://www.anarchy.no/dnfa.html . The main policy of AI and AFIN is presented in the largest Newspaper in Norway, Verdens Gang 06.11.2001, p 39 , see http://www.anarchy.no/vg1html.html. This article also states "Norway [as] a relatively anarchist country, however a bit far from the anarchist ideal (Norge som et relativt anarkistisk land, men nokså langt fra det anarkistiske ideal.)"
The libertarian music of the FABS, the Federalist Anarchist Beat Society, was a major source of inspiration for the Anarchist Federation of Norway, AFIN, and the Anarchist International Information Service, AIIS, during the velvet revolutionary change, and in general, now and before. The records of FABS have a.o.t. been played at Radio Libertaire in Paris, at the international anarchist conference in 1984 in Venice, and FABS-pressreleases have been published by among others CNT-AIT. FABS is a major source of inspiration for the Anarchist International in general, now and before.
Another great direct action where AFIN and AI-IFA-IAF were in the forefront, was against the ABCDE-CONFERENCE/WORLD BANK in Oslo 24-26 JUNE 2002, see http://www.anarchy.no/abcde.html .
V. THE ANARCHIST INTERNATIONAL (AI-IFA-IAF) AND THE ANARCHIST BLACK CROSS (ABC) - A BRIEF HISTORY
The ABC is rooted back to an "Anarchist Red Cross" organization in Tsarist Russia, which was later financed and organized by Russian emigres in the USA. During and after the Russian Revolution, the name was changed to "Black Cross" to avoid confusion with the Red Cross, which was also active in the war-stricken Russia. It carried on, chiefly from Chicago and Berlin, looking after first Russian political prisoners - who were now those of the Bolsheviks and not of the Tsar - and then the victims of Italian fascism. But the numbers of anarchists who were attacked by reaction in country after country became too vast for the organization - especially when the depression in the USA made it difficult to raise funds in the last bastion of support for them - the foreign language speaking trade unions in America. So the "Black Cross" faded out as an active organization.
The British Anarchist Federation had been reorganized in the early 1960s. At that time this was a broad based federation including both anarchists and semilibertarian marxists and liberals, so it hardly deserved the name anarchist. However at the same time there were a lot of political prisoners in the Spanish fascist state of Franco, many of them anarchists, and they were mainly forgotten by the international media as well as Amnesty International a.s.o.. Mainly some of the semilibertarian marxists, sometimes wrongly called "anarcho-marxists", related to this federation, among them Stuart Christie and Albert Meltzer, proposed to do political prisoner support at one of the yearly meetings of the British Anarchist Federation, and soon after a preliminary "Black Cross" appeared, however not called anarchist.
In 1968 - at the International Anarchist Congress, i.e. the reorganizing congress of the Anarchist International IFA, in Carrara, Italy, the delegates from the British Anarchist Federation had hoped to form and international "Black Cross" within the framework of IFA. However because they were not anarchists, but semilibertarian marxians, they were of course not allowed to participate fully at the 1st IFA congress, only join as observers, so the project was at first rejected as an IFA campaign.
Instead Stuart Christie, toghether with other semilibertarian marxists, as, say, Daniel Cohn Bendit, that also were observers at the International Anarchist Congress, formed a small alternative congress near by, where the International Black Cross was launched, i.e. it was not considered anarchist, but mainly semilibertarian marxian, but anarchists could also participate. Later on an anarchist section of the International Black Cross, called the Anarchist Black Cross affiliated to Internationa Black Cross, appeared. However the secretariate of the IBC, mainly Christie and Meltzer, at first continued also as the secretariate of the ABC, and this sometimes lead to misunderstandings with respect to the political tendency of the Anarchist Black Cross on the one hand, and the broader more or less semilibertarian International Black Cross, that had a marxian and sometimes also liberal tendency - on the other.
Furthermore, as in the early days just a loose network of a few microscopic and random groups, easy to infiltrate by provokers and ochlarchs occured, the organization was for several years insignificant in many ways, and mainly semilibertarian, not anarchist. This was about to change when AFIN/ANORG joined the ABC in 1979, with a more firm organizational approach, and a clear cut anarchist ABC-section.
In 1979, the Anarchist Federation of Norway (AFIN/ANORG), at about the same time as it affiliated to IFA and CAN, also joined the Anarchist Black Cross, collectively. In a letter to ABC later on the following was stated: " On the 15. january 1979 the ANORG collectively joined the Anarchist Black Cross by an unanimous voting throughout the country ." The affiliation to the Anarchist Black Cross was first confirmed in a personally signed letter from Albert Meltzer, and later also confirmed publicly in the paper "Black Flag - organ of the Anarchist Black Cross" No 6 (1981), also stating "Folkebladet" (The Peoples' Journal) as an organ of the ABC/IBC: "The main anarchist paper is Folkebladet (The People's Journal)... A new activist anarchist group with monthly action campaignes has emerged. The ANORG (AFIN) has collectively joined the Anarchist Black Cross". A campaign for an imprisoned fellow - a total draft rejector - Kjell Vesje [in 2002 working as a journalist in the NRK - The Norwegian general public broadcasting] was also launched internationally. Also other total total draft rejectors have been supported. The note in the Black Flag No 6 (1981) also declared that doing military service (mainly in the local militia, HV) was "a useful way to get knowledge of arms" for the anarchists.
In 1982-83 the collective membership of AFIN/ANORG to the ABC/IBC was passed on to the Northern sections of IFA. The 1st Northern IFA-congress in Oslo 1982 decided a.o.t. the following: "Political, economic and cultural co-operation was mentioned, in unions, co-operative and collective movement, ecology and environmental protection, feminism, youth movement, political solidarity work (for instance the Anarchist Black Cross) ... The aim should be an organizational integration of all anarchists ...as one nordic IFA section with national federations. To promote such a development the congress decided uninamously to establish a nordic IFA secretariate, which for the time being is to be adjoined to the expeditionary group of ANORG. Anarchists ... who are not associated to any national IFA federation adjoin to IFA directly through this nordic secretariate. If nothing else is agreed upon, these members will have the same connection to IFA as ANORG members, with the same rights, paying the same fee, etc" (i.e. also to be collectively members of ABC-IBC). This is a.o.t. documented in the Bulletin C.R.I.F.A. no 42 novembre 1982 p. 5. and Folkebladet No 4/1983 and IFA-Solidaritet No 8/1983 . Thus in 1982 the Northern Anarchist Black Cross network was established with national sections for Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.
A letter signed by Stuart Christie also confirmed the collective membership of the Northern sections of IFA to ABC-IBC, and Folkebladet as an organ of the Northern sections of ABC-IBC. In the early 1980s, say, the ABC-campaigns for Solidarity in Poland were among the most important. This is documented a.o.t. in Folkebladet/IJA No 1/1982. ABC-IBC was also involved in solidarity actions for the French anarchist radio "Radio Libertaire" in its fight for free speech and against repression from the authorities, see, say, Folkebladet/IJA No 4/1983 .
In 1983 the Northern sections became national IFA-federations, and the collective affiliation to ABC and IBC passed on as well. At the same time the IFA secretariate in Oslo also became the secretariate of the Anarchist Black Cross and the International Black Cross in the North in general. The semilibertarian marxian faction of IBC declined slowly, and the anarchistic ABC and IBC in the North, with secretariate in Oslo, became the main basis for the activity and organization. Folkebladet/International Journal of Anarchism continued as the main organ of the ABC-IBC when the British organ of the Anarchist Black Cross finished later on in the 1980s. This continued when the International Journal of Anarchism appeared on Internet in 1996 and later. " Source http://www.anarchy.no/abc.html and http://www.anarchy.no/anorgwarning.html .
VI. THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE
De fire nordlige IFA-føderasjonene pluss andre IFA-seksjoner, samlet i den nordlige anarkist-konføderasjonen, "International Journal of Anarchism", Det Internasjonale Anarkist-Tribunalet og "The Anarchist International Information Service (AIIS) of AI-IFA-IAF" dvs, IFA-sekretariatet og IJAs informasjonsbyrå, har offisielle web-sider på internett. Det er også en offisiell AI-IAF-IFA "links-site", og en side med de sørlige IFA-føderasjoner.Også syndikalistiske organisasjoner med mer eller mindre anarkistisk tilsnitt, er linket opp på denne siden. Anarkist Internasjonalens nettside www.anarchy.no har seksjoner for alle landene/verdensdelene på jorden, "Øst-Vest, Nord-Sør", og nye linker er under utarbeidelse, se http://www.anarchy.no/ai.html . I 1996 ble IFA-sekretariatets mandater gjort gjeldende på Internett, og The World Secretariate and Commission (WSC-IFA) ble opprettet, se http://www.anarchy.no/wscifa.html . Dette ble ratifisert på senere internasjonale anarkistkongresser.
Disse vedtakene utgjør et viktig grunnlag for den videre utvikling av Anarkistinternasjonalen, jevnfør AI/IFAs offisielle internett-sider på URL: www.anarchy.no . Det kan også komme sider for andre aktiviteter i samsvar med mandatene fra kongressene i fremtiden, bl.a egne kongress-, konferanse- og seminar-sider. Blant annet er det sider for grønn/øko-anarkisme, anarkafeminisme, anarkosyndikalisme,"community action", Anarchist Black Cross samt for hovedretningene kollektivistisk anarkisme, individualistisk/mutualistisk anarkisme, frihetlig kommunistisk og kommune-anarkisme og sosial-individualistisk anarkisme, sosial-anarkisme/føderalisme inkludert. Det er allerede egne web-sider for internasjonalens Frihetlig Rusfritt Forbund, og for ulike aksjonsgrupper i Norge og internasjonalt. En side for det internasjonale anarkistiske forsknings-nettverket, FICEDL, kan også nevnes.
The Anarchist International is a broader network than the IFA/IAF-sections in the north and south. At the founding congress of the broader network in 1988, later confirmed at the International Anarchist Congress, i.e. the 5th Anarchist Biennial, arranged by the NAC/IFA/AI in Oslo medio December 1998, the following was stated: "The Anarchist International is a global, undogmatic, free thinking, nonsectarian modern anarchist international, with sections for anarchoindividualist, anarchocollectivist, social individualist and mutualist anarchist and anarchocommunist as well as green/ecoanarchist, anarchosyndicalist and anarchafeminist anarchists. The southern IFA/IAF is a dogmatic, sectarian communist "anarchist", leftist marxistoid organization with little interest for the Anarchist International. The southern IFA/IAF is more communist than anarchist, i.e. collectivist on the economical political map. Outside the anarchist quadrant on the map, far left in the marxist quadrant." In addition to the global sections/organizations of the Anarchist International, i.e. the different Internationals, the AI-network is based on regional anarchist confederations, and anarchist federations of countries.
The AI-Secretariate, see http://www.anarchy.no/wscifa.html is elected by the paying, full, members among the about 2000 networkmembers/subscribers, groups and individuals, of AI, of which about 500 are in the Nordic countries. It has for the time being about 20 members, working parttime for the secretariate. It is autonomous and a purely co-ordinating secretariate, with no political power or authority. It is located in Oslo, Norway, but has also a broader network with contacts using e-mails etc. for communications. The AI-secretariate has its root back to the Nordic IFA-secretariate, elected and mandated by the first Northern AI/IFA congress in 1982, see http://www.anarchy.no/mandate.html . There is no leader of the secretariate, the members work horizontally organized, but with somewhat different mandates, decided by the secretariate collectively.
The AI-secretariate has freedom within a framework decided by congresses, and is not a central committee, but purely an advising organ. Some of the members use nick-names publicly for privacy and anonymity reasons. Accounting for networkmembers/subscribers of groups, the total number of persons connected to the network of AI broadly defined , is estimated to be about 50 000 world wide, of which about 20 000 are in the Nordic countries. The www.anarchy.no has for the time being about 15 000 visitors and about 50 000 hits per month. The number of networkmembers/subscribers has increased with about 5% each year in the last years. The Anarchist International is more of a loose network than an organization. Some external links that shed light on the size of AI, as a world wide network, are found at "Some external links about the Anarchist International and associated organizations, direct actions, articles, resolutions, etc." http://www.anarchy.no/external.html .
The about 2000 networkmembers/subscribers and the about 50 000 persons loosely associated to the AI-IFA-IAF-network are, unless otherways explicitely said, members of all the organizations of the Anarchist International. "We are commune or communist anarchists regarding the long term aim, the anarchist ideal. We are individualist anarchists in individual matters and collectivist anarchists in collective matters and social-individualist, including mutualist, anarchists in practical libertarian policy of today. We are anarcho-syndicalists in industrial and work matters, green/eco-anarchists regarding environmental questions, and anarcha-feminists in gender matters. We support the Libertarian Association of Teetotallers, LAT, at least practically, we organize in community actions (CAN), ), do solidaric support via the Anarchist Black Cross (ABC) and do research work via the FICEDL - IFCLSD." [Resolution from the International Anarchist Congress, i.e. the 5th Anarchist Biennial, arranged by the NAC/IFA/AI in Oslo medio December 1998].The about 5% annual growth of the AI-IFA-IAF will probably continue in the future.
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