IJ@

International Journal of Anarchism

ifa-Solidaritet - folkebladet - ISSN 0800-0220 no 1 (37) editor H. Fagerhus

Bulletin of the Anarchist International


NORWAY AND SWITZERLAND: ANARCHIES OF LOW DEGREE

Both in Norway and Switzerland the system works significantly more from the bottom, grassroots, and upwards, than from the top downwards, to the bottom. Thus it is anarchism, i.e. real democracy. They are however not anarchies of a high degree, just between 51-55% degree of anarchy. Thus the tendency towards government, the authoritarian degree is from 49-45%. But it is not significant government/state systems, although it is quite far away from 100% anarchy, the ideal anarchy at the top of the economical political map, see map below. If a system has more than 50% authoritarian degree, it is not anarchy/anarchism at all.

Anarchist ideal and principles: The aim is more anarchist systems, i.e. a movement towards more human rights and the best of the ideals of the French revolution, fairness and efficiency, less rank and income differences. The word anarchy origins from greek. The prefix an means negation of, as in anaerobe vs aerobe; and arch means superior, i.e. in contrast to subordinates, as in archbishop. Anarchy, anarchism, anarchist, etc. are alternatives to, and the opposite of, different forms of superior and subordinate positions, non economic and economically: Political/administrative rank and economic/income hierarchies broadly defined and in real terms, i.e. respectively (1) statism and (2) capitalism (economical plutarchy).

* Thus: Anarchy, anarchism, anarchist a.s.o. mean coordination on equal footing, without superiors and subordinates, i.e. horizontal organization and co-operation without coercion, ideally or practically. For more details see Anarchism.

Thus, government/state as defined in anarchism means a system that works more from the top downwards to the bottom, than the opposite, from the bottom, grassroots and upwards: A system with significantly large rank and/or income differences, practically certain inefficient, significantly vertically organized. A system with significantly small rank and income difference, plus efficiency, is anarchist - real democracy, i.e. significantly horizontally organized.

Both in Norway and Switzerland the system works significantly more from the bottom, grassroots, and upwards, than from the top downwards, to the bottom. Thus it is anarchy. They are however not anarchies of a high degree, just between 51-55% degree of anarchy. Thus the tendency towards government, the authoritarian degree is from 49-45%. But it is not significant government/state systems, although it is quite far away from 100% anarchy, the ideal anarchy at the top of the economical political map.  (If the authoritarian degree is above 50%,  it is not anarchism at all)

If you see at the economical-political map at System theory and EP-map (or below) you see close to the middle of the map there are systems of anarchy of low degree to the right of the advanced social-democracy and to the left of the advanced social-liberalist systems. This is in the sector of social-individualist anarchism in the quadrant of anarchism on the economical political map. It is such an anarchist system of low degree, that is the system in Norway. It is at the moment about 54% degree of anarchy in Norway, i.e. quite far from the ideal anarchist systems at about 100% anarchy.

Anarchy in Norway, of low degree, but > 50%, is registered since 1994/95. The revolutionary change, i.e. when Norway entered the social-individualist sector of the anarchist quadrant of the economic-political map, is i) rooted back to a domestic megatrend to the right and upwards on the economical-political map, ii) the No to EU referendum 28.11.1994, and iii) more actions, that iv) gave the marxist matriarch Gro Harlem Brundtland and her authoritarian government an economic-political uppercut, which v) stopped the ruling and turned the system into relatively anarchist administration/management. The development of the libertarian/anarchist degree in Norway related to the velvet revolution and revolutionary change in 1994/95 is estimated to the following: 11-27.11.1994 = ca 49,4% (state); 28-29.11.1994 = ca 51% (anarchy); 01.03.1995 = ca 52%; 01.06.1995 = ca 53%; 01.10.1995 = ca 53%, a stabilized anarchy of low degree. The term "ca" means about. 28.11.1994 is celebrated as the Day of the Anarchist Revolution in Norway, by libertarians.

The system made a " ) " shaped move from about [= ca] 49,4% libertarian degree and located close to the middlepoint of the economic-political map within the marxist quadrant 11-27.11.1994, toward the star on the economic-political map, see below, in the middle of 1995, with ca 53% degree of anarchism. Norway was the second Anarchy in the world, Iceland was the first, and Norway is still anarchist. The degree of anarchy increased to ca 54%, registered late in 2002. For more information about the anarchist system in Norway, see Anarchy in Norway since 1994, IJA 1994-96, Formulas of Anarchism and about methodology at System theory - chapter V. B..

Anarchism and the anarchist movement in Norway have a long history, rooted back to around 1850, see Anarchism in Norway. Today there are relatively many mainly social-indvidualist libertarians broadly defined in Norway, also many with a green libertarian tendency, all in all estimated to about 55 percent of the public (2009 est. see General election 2009 - Results), but not all use the label 'anarchist' about themselves. The number of libertarians of mainly other anarchist tendencies is relatively small. The number of anarchist activists is even less. The number of libertarians loosely associated to the Anarchist Federation of Norway - AFIN, i.e. subscribers/networkmembers - individuals and groups - including individuals in networks of the groups, is estimated to about 10 000 persons.


The star * indicates the position of the Norwegian system in 1994/95, with ca 53% degree of anarchy. In 2007 the position is a little bit over * at 54% degree of anarchy.


A degree of anarchism of ca 54%, as in Norway today, is as mentioned not a high degree of anarchism. This means the authoritarian degree is ca 46%. As mentioned, if the libertarian degree is less than 50% there is no anarchy at all. Ca 54% anarchy degree is quite an accepted estimate. It is a.o.t. quoted in Dagens Næringsliv (The Industrial life of today, the main economical newspaper of Norway) no 2/3 June 2007 and Finansavisen (The Financial newspaper) Wednesday 17. October 2007.

Switzerland is also a social-individualist anarchist system, a bit to the right of the Norwegian system, and at a somewhat less degree of anarchy, but within the anarchist quadrant of the map, see Ranking of countries according to libertarian degree. The point estimate for Switzerland is ca 53% degree of anarchism, with an authoritarian degree at ca 47%. Switzerland is more autonomous and less socialist compared to Norway. The high degree of autonomy is mainly due to confederalism and a semi-direct democracy, see "Federalism and Direct Democracy - the Swiss Confederation", Swiss report no 1.

Anarchy in Switzerland, of low degree -- but above 50%, is registered since 1999/2000. The revolutionary change, i.e. when the Swiss Confederation entered the social-individualist sector of the anarchist quadrant of the economic-political map, is rooted back to 17.08.1999, when the Confederation ratified United Nations' ILO Convention 98 on the Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining, removing the last obstacle to become an Anarchy in an otherwise rather libertarian country. Switzerland was the third Anarchy in the world, and the country is still anarchist. Thus, the Swiss Confederation became an anarchy of low degree in 1999/2000, with a degree of anarchy estimated to about 53% since 2003/2004. 17.08.1999 is celebrated as the Day of the Anarchist Revolution in Switzerland, by libertarians.

Switzerland was one of the birthplaces of anarchism as a political branch of the workers' movement in the late nineteenth century. Its position as a European crossroads, a destination for anarchists expelled from other countries and the site for the 1866 Geneva congress that founded the International Workingmen's Association (IWMA) (retrospectively called the First International), would shape Swiss anarchism. The Jura Federation, a Swiss section of the IWMA, was founded on October 9, 1870, at a meeting in Saint-Imier. The following year, after the defeat of the Paris Commune, many former communards, such as Paul Brousse, André Léo, and Benoît Malon, took refuge in Switzerland, joining the Jura Federation. Protesting what they viewed as the authoritarian maneuvers of Marx and his allies in the IWMA, the Jura Federation issued a key manifesto of anarchism, the Sonvillier Circular (1871).

At its zenith, the Jura Federation counted between 300 and 400 members in 20 sections, mostly in Neuchâtel, Le Locle, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Sonvillier, Saint-Imier, and Geneva, and its Bulletin had 600 subscribers in ten different countries. Expelled from the International in 1872, the Jura Federation held its own congress that same year, founding a new association, the so-called Saint-Imier International, i.e. The Anarchist International. The Anarchist International gathered some of the best minds of the anarchist movement of that time.

Today there are relatively many mainly social-indvidualist libertarians broadly defined in the Swiss Confederation, all in all estimated to about a little above fifty percent of the public, but far from all use the label 'anarchist' about themselves. The number of libertarians of mainly other anarchist tendencies is relatively small. The number of anarchist activists is even smaller. CIRA in Switzerland is an international center of documentation about anarchism. However in an e-mail to the Anarchist International 13.07.2010 they made their point clear "... CIRA being an international archive...", and indicating limited connection with domestic anarchism. More information about CIRA at the Anarchy Debate and FICEDL - IFCLSD. There are several networkmembers/subscribers, groups and individuals, of The Anarchist International in the Swiss Confederation, but they are not connected in one main federation as in Norway, i.e. the Anarchist Federation of Norway - AFIN.

Norway and Switzerland are basically socialist countries. They are also relatively autonomous, thus they are anarchies, but as mentioned of a low degree. As a rule of the thumb socialist countries have a gini-index less then 35. Norway has a gini-index at 25.8 and Switzerland at 33.1. USA has a Gini-index at 40.8, thus it is capitalist, it has economical plutarchy. The system in the USA is relatively autonomous and (economical) plutarchy, thus the system of USA is located in the quadrant of liberalism on the economical political map. USA has ca 42,5% libertarian degree, and an authoritarian degree of 57,5%. It is clearly more authoritarian than Norway and Switzerland. See Ranking. The USA may be more liberal than Norway and Switzerland, but that is not the same as it is (more) anarchist/libertarian.

The degree of anarchism is dependent on both the degree of socialism and the degree of autonomy, see Formulas of anarchism and real democracy. Both Norway and Switzerland have a higher GDP per capita than the USA. In the relatively anarchist countries Norway and Switzerland, that are both socialist and autonomous, with more coercion-free regulated markets, the GDP per capita are 48,412 and 43,553 respectively, and the Gini-index as mentioned 25.8 and 33.1, while the more "free" market based, and economically plutarchical USA has GDP per capita at 37,648 and a Gini-index at 40.8. Thus it indicates that socialist and autonomous countries, anarchist (at low degree) countries, with more free people and more coercion-free regulated markets are both more efficient and has a more anarchist (equal) income distribution than the plutarchist more "free" market based USA. Economical plutarchy is relatively slavery.

The numbers are from 2003 UN statistics, see Ranking - footnotes. The most relevant measure of efficiency GDP per capita is the GDP per capita measured in US $ at the current exchange rate. For 2005 the GDP per capita at the current exchange rate is: Norway 53,805 US $, Switzerland 49,055 and USA 42,208. Thus both Norway and Switzerland are more efficient than the USA.

Anarchy is about a horizontally organized public sector and a horizontally organized private sector: As mentioned a system with significantly small rank and income differences, plus efficiency. As Norway and Switzerland... But the Anarchist International (AI) is of course not satisfied with anarchies of a very low degree. The AI works all of the time to make the degree of anarchy higher, in an anarchist way.... (Updated, sources: IIFOR and AIIS)

THE 25 HIGHEST RANKING COUNTRIES ACCORDING TO LIBERTARIAN DEGREE ETC. SYSTEM ANALYSIS
NORWAY RANKED AS NO 1 AND SWITZERLAND RANKED AS NO 2

Countries:

Rank of country according to libertarian degree, and type of system

Libertarian degree and (authoritarian degree) %

Degree of socialism
and (capitalism) %

Degree of autonomy and
(statism) %

Gini-index

Norway

1 Anarchy

54,0 (46,0)

55,0 (45.0)

53,2 (46,8)

25,8

Switzerland

2 Anarchy

53,0 (47,0)

51,0 (49,0)

55,1 (44,9)

33,1

Iceland

3 Anarchy

52,0 (48,0)

54,0 (46,0)

50,1 (49,9)

25,0 (est.)

Liechtenstein

4 Soc.dem.

49,5 (50,5)

51,4 (48,6)

47,7 (52,3)

32,0 (est.)

Luxembourg

5 Soc.dem.

49,2 (50,8)

52,1 (47,9)

46,5 (53,5)

30,8

Denmark

6 Soc.dem.

48,8 (51,2)

55,3 (44,7)

43,0 (57,0)

24,7

Japan

7 Soc.dem.

48,5 (51,5)

55,2 (44,8)

42,6 (57,4)

24,9

Belgium

8 Soc.dem.

48,2 (51,8)

54,0 (46,0)

43,0 (57,0)

25,0

Finland

9 Soc.dem.

47,9 (52,1)

53,8 (46,2)

42,6 (57,4)

26,9

Sweden

10 Soc.dem.

47,5 (52,5)

54,0 (46,0)

41,7 (58,3)

25,0

Netherlands

11 Soc.dem.

47,2 (52,8)

52,0 (48,0)

42,8 (57,2)

30,9

Canada

12 Soc.dem.

46,8 (53,2)

50,9 (49,1)

43,0 (57,0)

33,1

Austria

13 Soc.dem.

46,5 (53,5)

52,1 (47,9)

41,4 (58,6)

30,0

Ireland

14 Populist

46,2 (53,8)

45,0 (55,0)

47,4 (52,6)

35,9

Germany

15 Soc.dem.

45,9 (54,1)

53,0 (47,0)

39,6 (60,4)

28,3

Spain

16 Soc.dem.

45,5 (54,5)

51,5 (48,5)

40,1 (59,9)

32,5

Australia

17 Populist

45,0 (55,0)

48,0 (52,0)

42,2 (57,8)

35,2

United King.

18 Populist

44,5 (55,5)

44,7 (55,3)

44,3 (55,7)

36.0

New Zealand

19 Populist

44,0 (56,0)

44,6 (55,4)

42,4 (57,6)

36,2

France

20 Soc.dem.

43,5 (56,5)

51,4 (48,6)

36,6 (63,4)

32,7

Italy

21 Populist

43,0 (57,0)

44,7 (55,3)

41,3 (58,7)

36,0

USA

22 Cons. lib.

42,5 (57,5)

24,5 (75,5)

69,8 (30,2)

40,8

Israel

23 Populist

42,3 (57,7)

47,8 (52,2)

37,3 (62,7)

35,5

Hong Kong

24 Cons. lib.

42,1 ( 57,9)

22,1 (77,9)

74,8 (25,2)

43,4

Greece

25 Populist

42,0 (58,0)

47,9 (52,1)

36,6 (63,4)

35,4

The estimates are approximately figures. © IIFOR/IJA ISSN 0800 0220 2007 and later.
Anarchy = here social-individualist anarchism; Soc. dem. = social democrat marxism; Populist = here moderate parliamentarian democratic fascism; Cons. lib. = Conservative liberalism. See map above. For ranking of countries according to libertarian degree and estimates of the libertarian degree in general, and information on methodology, see Ranking and System theory - chapter V. B. .

For the libertarian vs authoritarian, capitalist vs socialist and statism vs autonomy degree we have used " , ", the European standard instead of American/UK standard, i.e. " . " as decimal separator. For other figures we have used the American/UK standard. The term "ca" is an abbreviation for the latin circa, which means about or approximately.

Resolution, decided with general consent, by:
The International Anarchist Congress
The 11th Anarchist Biennial 27-28.11.2010
International Congress-Seminar on Anarchism
The AI/IFA network represents more than 50 000 anarchist world wide
To see the Website of the Congress - Click here!


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Information about the Norwegian Anarchist Council (NACO) is found at:

NACO

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